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Resources


“If ever I undertook the supremely difficult inquiry of what was conducive to our welfare I should feel that I needed to arm myself beforehand with whatever resources logic could afford, to speak of no others.”

Charles S. Peirce, R 845, CP 6.517, 1905

Over the years, we have compiled many resources for studying the works of Charles S. Peirce. Whenever possible, we have made every effort to publish or link to these resources here on our website.

Max H. Fisch Library


The Peirce Edition’s collections form the core of the research center’s holdings, and include the library of Max H. Fisch (1901-1995), an internationally renowned scholar recognized for his work on Charles Peirce and Giambattista Vico. In addition to comprehensive collections of books and periodicals relating to these authors, the Max Fisch Library contains over 13,000 volumes in philosophy, the classics, literature, history, psychology, religious studies, sciences, and languages, many of which are out of print today. Fisch’s papers include a comprehensive biographical reference catalog that, along with the edition’s master reconstruction of Peirce’s known writings, draw research scholars from all over the world.

Reference Catalog

During his forty years of researching Charles S. Peirce, Max H. Fisch compiled a comprehensive Reference Catalog, which is part of the Max H. Fisch Collection. The Reference Catalog is divided by subject, chronological year, and manuscript number in accordance with the Robin Catalog. The Reference Catalog contains Peirce quotes and information about his writings, professional dealings, colleagues, family, and personal life.

Books

The Max H. Fisch Collection includes numerous books. Many of these books are now out of print. Fisch’s books range in topics and include philosophy (classical, medieval, modern, and contemporary), the classics, literature, history, psychology, religious studies, science, languages, Charles S. Peirce, and Giambattista Vico.

Papers

The Max H. Fisch Collection contains over 110 linear feet of files and papers which include correspondence, lectures, notes, published articles, pamphlets, conference programs, newspaper clippings, and other items connected with his research.

Peirce Project Holdings


Placeholder for Holdings.

Peirce Manuscripts


Digitized copies of select Peirce manuscripts have been uploaded online. These manuscript files are currently being migrated to the new site. Until then, view them from the link below.

      Peirce Manuscripts

Published Papers


The Institute for Studies in Pragmaticism is the first and thus oldest organized research center on Peirce. Two prominent Peirce scholars created it in 1972 at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. They were Charles S. Hardwick and Kenneth L. Ketner, who brought in Max H. Fisch as a visiting professor in their university. The Institute became the strategic and conceptual birthplace of what was to become the Peirce Edition Project in Indianapolis. The mission of the Institute was and remains to this day to facilitate study of the life and works of Peirce and his continuing influence within interdisciplinary sciences.

Among the major resources produced by the Institute is A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Published Works of Charles Sanders Peirce with a Bibliography of Secondary Studies, under the joint editorship of Kenneth L. Ketner, Christian J. W. Kloesel, Joseph M. Ransdell, Max H. Fisch, and Charles S. Hardwick (Greenwich, CT: Johnson Associates, 1977). Professor Ketner published a second revised edition in 1986 under the aegis of the Philosophy Documentation Center.

That bibliography incorporated all previous bibliographies (eight of them, compiled between 1916 and 1974 by Morris Cohen, Irving C. Smith, Daniel C. Haskell, Arthur W. Burks, and especially Max H. Fisch, who compiled half of them). It served as a companion to another major product: a collection of 149 microfiches titled Charles Sanders Peirce: Complete Published Works, included Selected Secondary Materials (Greenwich, CT: Johnson Associates, 1977). This collection was subsequently made available by the Philosophy Documentation Center under the title Charles S. Peirce Microfiche Collection. It was completed in 1986 by 12 supplementary microfiches.

In 2013, that entire collection was digitized and ported online, where it can be viewed through 1248 downloadable PDFs. That set of PDFs constitute the Third Digital Edition of The Published Works of Charles Sanders Peirce. Explanations regarding its method of preparation, how to use it, and how to refer to it in the form of a bibliographical citation, are provided in an online guide. The digitized version of the Comprehensive Bibliography consists of a PDF document that is also downloadable.

For the convenience of researchers, we provide below an alternate tabulation of the PDF links, organized by publication year.
     P numbers denote publications by Peirce;
     O numbers publications by authors other than Peirce.
Each link displays the title of the publication and its source as found in the Comprehensive Bibliography, including a number of revisions or corrections based on Peirce Project findings. Missing P or O numbers (principally O numbers) denote by their absence documents that were not filmed in the microfiche edition; they are marked “(NF)” in the Comprehensive Bibliography.

“Think Again!”

The Harvard Magazine, vol. 4 (April), 100–105.

1858

“Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.”

Boston Daily Evening Traveller (4 August), page 4, columns 5–6.

1859

“Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.”

Boston Daily Evening Traveller (5 August), page 1, columns 6–7.

“The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.”

Boston Daily Evening Traveller (9 August), page 4, columns 5–6.

“The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.”

Boston Daily Evening Traveller (10 August), page 2, columns 4–5.

[Azimuth and magnetic observations] “Magnetic Observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, 1859, House Ex. Doc. No. 41, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Thomas H. Ford, p. 36.

[Service as aid] “Triangulation of the western side of Isle au Breton sound, LA.”

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, 1860, House Ex. Doc. No. 14, 36th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 85–86.

1860

“The Chemical Theory of Interpenetration.”

The American Journal of Science and Arts, second series 35, whole series 85 (January 1863), 78–82. The article is dated, “Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 1862.”

1863

“The Place of Our Age in the History of Civilization.”

Oration delivered at the reunion of the Cambridge High School Association, Thursday evening, 12 November. Extracts printed in Cambridge Chronicle, 18 (21 November), no. 47, page 1, columns 1–5. See R 1638.

Review of Lectures on the English Language. By George P. Marsh. The Works of William Shakespeare. By Richard Grant White. The English of Shakespeare illustrated in a Philological Commentary on his Julius Caesar. By George L. Craik.

The North American Review, vol. 98 (April), 342–369. The page heading of this review is “Shakespearean Pronunciation.” Written in collaboration with John Buttrick Noyes.

1864

Peirce, Benjamin, [Astronomical Works]

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, 1862, House Ex. Doc. No. 22, 37th Congress, 3d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 15–16, 155–156, 157–158.

[Computations] “Reports of Professor Benjamin Peirce, of Harvard, upon the Occultations of the Pleiades, in 1841 and 1842.”

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, 1863, House Ex. Doc. No. 11, 38th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 146– 154; See also p. 15.

Memoranda Concerning the Aristotelean Syllogism.

Privately printed booklet. “Distributed at the Lowell Institute, Nov., 1866, by Charles S. Peirce, of Cambridge, Mass.”

1866

[Computations] “Report of Professor Benjamin Peirce, of Harvard, on Computations for Longitude from Occultations of the Pleiades.”

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, 1864, House Ex. Doc. No. 15, 38th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 114; see also p. 11.

Review of The Logic of Chance. By John Venn.

The North American Review, vol. 105 (July), 317–321.

1867

“Nominalism versus Realism.”

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. 2, 57–61. The article refers to a previous work in the same journal at 1 (1867), 250–256—those pages are filmed here to facilitate understanding of the issues Peirce and Harris are discussing in P 00025.

1868

“Questions Concerning Certain Faculties Claimed for Man.”

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. 2, 103–114.

“Some Consequences of Four Incapacities.”

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. 2, 140–157.

“What is Meant by ‘Determined’.”

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. 2, 190–191.

Harris, William Torrey. “Intuition vs. Contemplation.”

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. 2, 191–192. See P 00025 and P 00028.

“On an Improvement in Boole’s Calculus of Logic.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 7, 250–261. Read before the Academy on 12 March 1867.

“On the Natural Classification of Arguments.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 7, 261–287. Read before the Academy on 9 April 1867.

“On a New List of Categories.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 7, 287–298. Read before the Academy on 14 May 1867.

“Upon the Logic of Mathematics.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 7, 402–412. Read before the Academy on 10 September 1867.

“Upon Logical Comprehension and Extension.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 7, 416–432. Read before the Academy on 13 November 1867.

[Corrections to an article]. “On the spectrum of the Aurora Borealis.”

The American Journal of Science and Arts, second series 48, whole series 98 (November), 404–405.

1869

“Calendars.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1869, Boston: Ticknor and Fields, pp. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46.

“Chronology, Eclipses, and Tides.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1869, Boston: Ticknor and Fields, pp. 62–64.

“The Pairing of the Elements.”

Chemical News, American Supplement. American reprint vol. 4 (June), 339–340. Letter to the editor.

“Professor Porter’s ‘Human Intellect’.”

The Nation, vol. 8 (18 March) 211–213, pages 23–29.

“Roscoe’s Spectrum Analysis.”

The Nation, vol. 9 (22 July) 73–74, filmed at P 00043, pages 29–32.

“The English Doctrine Of Ideas.”

The Nation, vol. 9 (25 November) 461–462, filmed at P 00043, pages 32–37.

Peirce, Benjamin. [Astronomical work],”Computing Division.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1866, House Ex. Doc. No. 87, 39th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 24–25; see also p. 22 for mention of the “Schooner Peirce.”

[Observations] “Latitude observations at Manomet, near Plymouth, Massachusetts.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1867, House Ex. Doc. No. 275, 40th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 19.

[Observations] “Magnetic observations at Manomet and at Nantucket, Massachusetts.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1861, House Ex. Doc. No. 275, 40th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 19–20, filmed at P 00047.

“Astronomical Information, Etc.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1870, Boston: Fields, Osgood & Co., p. 61.

1870

“Calendars.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1870, Boston: Fields, Osgood & Co., pp. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46.

“The Spectroscope.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1870, Boston: Fields, Osgood & Co., p. 62.

“Bain’s Logic.”

The Nation, vol. 11 (4 August) 77–78, filmed at P 00043, pages 38–40. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on De Morgan].

The Nation, vol. 12 (20 April) 276, filmed at P 00043, pages 41–42. Probably by Peirce.

1871

Wright, Chauncey. Note [on Peirce’s review of the works of Berkeley in the North American Review].

The Nation, vol. 13 (30 November) 355–356; see also vol. 13 (2 November 1871) 294, filmed at P 00043, pages 43–45.

“Mr. Peirce and The Realists.”

The Nation, vol. 13 (14 December), 386, filmed at P 00043, page 45. Signed letter.

“On the Appearance of Encke’s Comet as seen at Harvard College Observatory.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 16 December. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 35. Announcement only.

Harley, Robert. “On Boole’s ‘Laws of Thought’.”

Report of the Fortieth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Liverpool in September 1810, second sequence of pages, pp. 14–15. See P 00052.

[On photometric measurement of the stars]

Paper read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 12 March. Cited in Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 8 (May 1868 to May 1873), Boston and Cambridge: Welch, Bigelow, and Company, 1873, p. 412.

1872

“Astronomical.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1812, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, p. 4.

“Calendars.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1812, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, pp. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46.

“Educational Textbooks. II.”

The Nation, vol. 14 (11 April) 244–246; see also 14 (4 April 1872) 222. Peirce definitely wrote the review of Wilson’s book, and probably also wrote the reviews of the other books mentioned in this review article. Filmed at P 00043, pages 46–51.

“On Stellar Photometry.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 19 October. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 63. See MSS 1055 and 1059. Announcement only.

“On the Coincidence of the Geographical Distribution of Rainfall and of Illiteracy, as shown by the Statistical Maps of the Ninth Census Reports.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 21 December. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 68, abstract given. See R 1131. Announcement only.

[Observations] “Solar eclipse of August 7, at Shelbyville, Kentucky.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1869, House Ex. Doc. No. 206, 41st Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 38–39.

“Astronomical.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1873, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, p. 4.

1873

“Calendars.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1873, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, pp. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46.

“Lazelle’s ‘One Law in Nature’.”

The Nation, vol. 17 (10 July) 28–29, filmed at P 00043, pages 52–54.

“On Logical Algebra.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 17 May. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 88. Announcement only.

[Observations, Solar Eclipse of 22 December 1870] “Report on the Eclipse of the Sun on the 22d of December, 1870. By Benjamin Peirce, LLD., Superintendent United States Coast Survey.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1870, House Ex. Doc. No. 112, 41st Congress, 3d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 229–232.

“Astronomical.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1874, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, p. 4.

1874

“Calendars.”

The Atlantic Almanac, 1874, Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, pp. 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46.

“On Quaternions, as Developed from the General Theory of the Logic of Relatives.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 14 March. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 94. See also pp. 39 and 48 for Peirce’s appearance on membership list and contributor’s list. Announcement only.

“On Various Hypotheses in Reference to Space.”

Paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 14 March. Cited in Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington, vol. 1 (1874), 97. Announcement only.

[Observations, Solar Eclipse of 22 December 1870] “Solar Eclipse of December 22, 1870,” by Benjamin Peirce.

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1871, House Ex. Doc. No. 121, 42d Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 9–14. Charles is mentioned at pp. 10 and 11.

[Observations, Solar Eclipse of 22 December 1870] “Report of Observation of the Eclipse of the Sun of December 22, 1870, by Dr. C. H. F. Peters, Director of the Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1871, House Ex. Doc. No. 121, 42d Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 180–184. Peirce is mentioned at p. 182.

“Photometric Measurements of the Stars.”

Paper read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 March. Cited in Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 2, whole series 10 (May 1874 to May 1875), Boston: Press of John Wilson and Son, 1875, p. 473.

1875

“The Theory of Errors of Observation.”

Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1874, edited by Spencer F. Baird, New York: Harper and Brothers, pp. 324–325. Abstract of Peirce’s article “On the Theory of Errors of Observation.”

“A Plan and an Illustration.”

The Democratic Party, by Melusina Fay Peirce, Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, pp. 36–37.

[Responsibility for temporary supervision of Coast Survey office] “Coast Survey Office.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1872, House Ex. Doc. No. 240, 42d Congress, 3d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 50–51.

[Administrative Duty]

“Coast Survey Office.”

“Errata in the Heis Catalogue of Stars.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1873, House Ex. Doc. No. 133, 43d Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 175–180.

“On a new edition of Ptolemy’s catalogue of stars.”

Paper read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 11 October. Cited in Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 4, whole series 12 (May 1876 to May 1877), Boston: Press of Wilson and Son, 1877, p. 283.

1876

“Logical Contraposition and Conversion.”

Mind, vol. 1 (July), 424–425; includes editor’s reply on p. 425.

“Note on the Sensation of Color.”

The American Journal of Science and Arts, third series 13, whole series 113 (January to June), 247–251.

1877

“List of Latitude Stars Employed in the Coast Survey.”

Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1876, edited by Spencer F. Baird, New York: Harper and Brothers, pp. 47–48. Abstract of the star catalogue prepared under Peirce’s supervision including the list of errata in the catalogue of Heis.

“De I’influence de la flexibilité du trépied sur l’oscillation du pendule à réversion.”

par Mr. Peirce du Coast Survey U.S.A. Note Communiquée par Mr. E. Plantamour. Association géodésique internationale. This is a lithograph distributed in advance of the Geodesic Conference.

“Note on the Sensation of Color.”

The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, fifth series, 3 (supplement), 543–547. Reprint of P 00100.

“Nicholas St. John Green.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 4, whole series 12 (from May, 1876 to May, 1877), Boston: Press of John Wilson and Son, pp. 289–291.

[Pendulum Observations] “Atlantic Coast of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, including Seaport Bays, and Rivers.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1814, House Ex. Doc. No. 100, 43d Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 17–18.

Review of Esposizione del Metodo dei Minimi Quadrati. Per Annibale Ferrero.

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 1, 59–63.

1878

“Schwimmende Magnete.”

Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 2, p. 661; see also p. 574. Abstracted into German by G. Wiedemann from Peirce’s article in Nature, vol. 18 (1878), 381.

Review of Popular Astronomy. By Simon Newcomb.

The Nation, vol. 27 (1 August) 74, filmed at P 00043, page 55.

“On the acceleration of gravity at initial stations.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, New York City, 5–8 November. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1883, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 85, 48th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1884, Appendix D, p. 49.

Mayer, A.M. “Floating Magnets.”

Nature, vol. 18 (4 July), 258–260. Conversation with Peirce mentioned at 260.

Photometric Researches, Made in the Years 1872–1875.

Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, vol. 9, Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.

“Illustrations of the Logic of Science. Third Paper.—The Doctrine of Chances.”

The Popular Science Monthly, vol. 12 (March), 604–615.

“Note on Grassmann’s Calculus of Extension.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 5, whole series 13, 115– 116; see also 427–428. Read before the Academy on 10 October 1877.

“On the Influence of Internal Friction upon the Correction of the Length of the Seconds’ Pendulum for the Flexibility of the Support.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 5, whole series 13 (May 1877 to May 1878), pp. 396–401; see also p. 433. Presented by title before the Academy on 13 March. See P 00253.

[Pendulum Observations]

“Pendulum observations, “ in Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1875, House Ex. Doc. No. 81, 44th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 19.

“Description of an Apparatus for Recording the Mean of the Times of a Set of Observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1875, House Ex. Doc. No. 81, 44th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 249–253.

“La Logique de la Science. Première Partie. Comment se fixe la croyance.”

Revue Philosophique de la France et de l’Etranger, vol. 6 (December), 553–569.

[Attendance and remarks, International Geodetic Conference, Stuttgart, 1877]

Verhandlungen der vom 27 September bis 2 October 1877 zu Stuttgart abgehalten fünften allgemeinen Conferenz der Europaischen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 4, 20, 23, 100–104, 118, and 139.

“De l’Influence de la Flexibilité du Trépied sur l’Oscillation du Pendule à Réversion; Note communiquée par Mr. E. Plantamour.”

Verhandlungen der vom 27 September bis 2 October 1877 zu Stuttgart abgehalten fünften allgemeinen Conferenz der Europaischen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 171–187. Comments on Peirce’s paper by Th. von Oppolzer are at pp. 188–192. Additional comments on Peirce by E. Plantamour are in an appendix entitled “Recherches Expérimentales sur le Mouvement Simultané d’un Pendule et de ses Supports.” pp. 3–5.

“On the Reference of the Unit of Length to the Wavelengths of Light.”

Paper read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, 11 June. Cited in Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 7, whole series 15, 369–370. See R 1072–R 1075.

1879

“On the Ghosts in Rutherfurd’s Diffraction-Spectra.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 2, 330–347.

“A Quincuncial Projection of the Sphere.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 2, 394–396, plus map plate. Erratum, American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 3 (1880). See P 00183.

“Note on the Progress of Experiments for comparing a Wave-length with a Meter.”

The American Journal of Science and Arts, third series 18, whole series 118 (July), 51. See R 1072-R 1075.

“On a method for swinging Pendulums for the determination of Gravity, proposed by M. Faye.”

The American Journal of Science and Arts, third series 18, whole series 118 (August), 112–119.

Anonymous. Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1878, edited by Spencer F. Baird.

New York: Harper and Brothers, p. 111. Reference to Peirce’s participation in the fifth General Conference of the European International Geodetic Conference.

Faye, Hervé. “Théorie mathématique des oscillations d’un pendule double, par M. Peirce.”

Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, vol. 89, 462–463.

“Questions Concerning certain Faculties, Claimed for Man.”

Read before a meeting of the Metaphysical Club, Johns Hopkins University, on 28 October. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 18. Abstract given.

“Read’s Theory of Logic.”

The Nation, vol. 28 (3 April) 234–235, filmed at P 00043, pages 56–58.

“Rood’s Chromatics.”

The Nation, vol. 29 (16 October) 260, fiImed at P 00043, pages 58–6–1. The last two paragraphs are not by Peirce, their author being Russell Sturgis.

Note [on the current number of the American Journal of Mathematics].

The Nation, vol. 29 (25 December) 440, filmed at P 00043, pages 61–62.

“Mutual Attraction of Spectral Lines.”

Nature, vol. 21 (4 December), 108.

[Pendulum Observations] “Pendulum-Observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1816, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 37, 44th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 6–9.

[Preparation of a Star Catalogue] “A Catalogue of Stars for Observations of Latitude.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1876, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 37, 44th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 83–129. “The list was selected under the direction of Assistant C. S. Peirce...” (p. 83).

“Spectroscopic Studies.”

Science News, vol. 1 (1 May), pp. 196–198. See also pp. 193–198. Abstracts of the two papers Peirce presented at the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, 15–18 April 1879 [“On Ghosts in Diffraction Spectra” and “Comparison of Wave Lengths with the Metre”]. Reprinted in Nature, 20, (29 May 1879), 99–101 with abridgements.

[References to Peirce’s pendulum researches]

Verhandlungen der vom 4 bis 8 September 1878 in Hamburg Vereinigten Permanenten Commission der Europaischen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 8–9.

[Report on Peirce’s pendulum researches]

Verhandlungen der vom 4 bis 8 September 1878 in Hamburg Vereinigten Permanenten Commission der Europa7schen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 116–120.

“On the Algebra of Logic.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 3, 15–57.

1880

“Results of Pendulum Experiments.”

American Journal of Science, third series 20, whole series 120 (October), 327. Reprinted in The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, fifth series 10 (November 1880), 387; see P 00174.

“Über eine Methode mit Schwingenden Pendels die Schwere zu bestimmen.”

Beiblättter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 4, p. 240; see also bibliographic references to Peirce at pp. 78, 494, 572, 582, 695, and 846. Abstracted into German by

“Gegenseitige A nziehung von Spectrallinien.”

Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 4, p. 278. Abstracted into German by E. Wiedemann from Peirce’s article in Nature, vol. 21 (1879), 108.

“Sur la valeur de la pesanteur à Paris.”

Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, vol. 90 (June), 1401–1403.

Faye, Hervé. “Rapport sur un Mémoire de M. Peirce concernant la constante de la pesanteur à Paris.”

Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, vol. 90, 1463–1466. Review of “Sur la valeur de la pesanteur à Paris” by Charles Sanders Peirce.

“Results of Pendulum Experiments.”

The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, fifth series 10 (November), 387.

[Remarks on a paper by Marquand]

Given before the Metaphysical Club, Johns Hopkins University, on 13 January. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 34. Abstract of Marquand’s paper given.

“On Kant’s ‘Critic of the Pure Reason’ in the light of Modern Logic.”

Paper read before the Metaphysical Club, Johns Hopkins University, on 9 March. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 49. Abstract given.

“On the Colours of Double Stars.”

Nature, vol. 22 (29 July), 291–292.

[Pendulum Observations] “Pendulum experiments.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1877, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, 45th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 17–18.

“A Quincuncial Projection of the Sphere.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 1877, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, 45th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 191–192. Same as American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 2 (1879), 394–396 plus map plate. Also reprinted in A Treatise on Projections, by Thomas Craig, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1882, p. 132.

[References to Peirce’s pendulum researches]

Verhandlungen der vom 16 bis 20 September 1879 in Gent vereinigten Permanenten Commission der Europaischen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 7–10, 19–29.

Th. W. “Peirce, C. S., Photometric researches. Made in the years 1872–1875.”

Vierteljahresschrift der Astron. Gesellschaft, vol. 15, 193–208.

“Comparison Between the Yard and Metre by Means of the Reversible Pendulum.”

Paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science Cincinnati Ohio, August. Cited in Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Thirtieth Meeting, held at Cincinnati, Ohio, August, 1881, Salem: 1882, abstract given (presumably by Peirce) on p. 20. Notice of Peirce’s election to membership in the

1881

“On the Logic of Number.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 4, 85–95.

“Resultate von Pendelversuchen.”

Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 5, p. 12. Abstracted into German by E. Wiedemann from Peirce’s 1880 article in the American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 20, p. 327.

“Lieber Gespenster (ghosts) in den Rutherfurd’schen Beugungsspectren.”

Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 5, pp. 48–50. Abstracted into German by E. Wiedemann from Peirce’s 1879 article in the American Journal of Mathematics, vol.

“Lieber die Weite der Gitterabstande in Rutherfurd’s Gittern.”

Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 5, p. 665. Abstracted into German by E. Wiedemann from Peirce’s 1881 article in Nature, vol. 24, p. 262.

Peirce, Benjamin. ldeality in the Physical Sciences.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co., at 67–68.

[Remarks on Gilman’s paper]

Given before the Metaphysical Club, Johns Hopkins University, November. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 177.

Review of Studies in Deductive Logic. By W. Stanley Jevons.

The Nation, vol. 32 (31 March) 227, filmed at P 00043, pages 63–64.

McColl, Hugh. “Symbolical Logic.”

Nature, vol. 23 (21 April), 578–579.

McColl, Hugh. “Symbolical Logic.”

Nature, vol. 24 (5 May), 5.

“Width of Mr. Rutherfurd’s Rulings.”

Nature, vol. 24 (21 July), 262.

Anonymous. “Benjamin Peirce.”

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series 8, whole series 16 (24 May), 443–454. Obituary notice.

[Pendulum research] “Pendulum experiments.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1878, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 13, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 4, 18.

[Pendulum Research] “Pendulum observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1879, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 17, 46th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 27–29. Most of this article consists of quotations from Peirce about work in progress or published in other journals.

Tannery, Paul. “C. S. Peirce.—On the Algebra of Logic.”

Revue Philosophique de la France et de l’Etranger, vol. 12, 646–650.

“A New Computation of the Compression of the Earth, from Pendulum Experiments.”

Paper read before the Scientific Association, Johns Hopkins University, February. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 128. Abstract given.

[Letter to Monsieur Faye]

Verhandlungen der vom 13 bis 16 September 1880 zu Munchen Abgehaltenen Sechsten Allgemeinen Conferenz der Europaischen Gradmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 30–32; repeated on pp. 84–86.

[References to Peirce’s pendulum researches]

Verhandlungen der vom 13 bis 16 September 1880 zu Munchen Abgehaltenen Sechsten Allgemeinen Conferenz der Europaischen Gradmessung. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, pp. 43, 96, A ppendix II (pp. 1–12), Appendix IIa (pp. 1–8).

“Brief Description of the Algebra of Relatives.”

Privately printed brochure, Baltimore: 7 January; with a postscript dated 16 January.

1882

Abstract of “On the Logic of Number.”

Printed in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 184.

“On the Relative Forms of Quaternions.”

Paper read before the Mathematical Seminary, Johns Hopkins University, January. Cited in The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 1 (1882), 179. Abstract given.

[Pendulum research, metrology, diffraction spectra] “Pendulum observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1880, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, 46th Congress, 3d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 19–20.

“Quincuncial Projection of the Sphere.”

A Treatise on Projections, by Thomas Craig, Treasury Department, Document No. 61, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 132, 247. This is extracted from Peirce’s report on this topic in the Coast Survey Report for 1877.

Peirce, Benjamin Osgood, Jr. “On the Sensitiveness of the Eye to Slight Differences of Color.”

The American Journal of Science, third series 26, whole series 126 (October), 299–302.

1883

“C. S. Peirce. “lrregularidades en las oscilaciones del pendulo.”

Cronica Cientifica (Barcelona), vol. 6 (25 October), 447–449.

Sylvester, J. J. “Erratum.”

The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 2, 46.

“A Communication from Mr. Peirce.”

The Johns Hopkins University Circulars, vol. 2, 86–88. See the related note by Sylvester printed immediately above Peirce’s “Communication.”

[Pendulum research, metrology] “Pendulum observations.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1881, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 26.

“On the Flexure of PenduIum Supports.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1881, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 359–441. See P 00126.

“On the Deduction of the Ellipticity of the Earth from Pendulum Experiments.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1881, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 442–456.

“On a Method of Observing the Coincidence of Vibration of Two Pendulums.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1881, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 457–460.

“On the Value of Gravity at Paris.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1881, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 461–463.

[Pendulum research] “Figure of the Earth.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 4.

[Measurement of absolute gravity] “Measurement of the Force of Gravity.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 19.

[Measurement of absolute gravity, economy of research] “Force of gravity.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 32–33.

[Gravity research] “Report of a Conference on Gravity Determinations, held at Washington, D.C., in May, 1882.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 503–516. Peirce is mentioned a few times in the report, and his recorded remarks are given at several points.

“Six Reasons for the Prosecution of Pendulum Experiments.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 506–508; filmed at P 00260.

“Opinions Concerning the Conduct of Gravitation Work.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882,

“Experimental Researches on the Force of Gravity.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 557. “Owing to the already bulky proportions of this volume, Appendix No. 23 [this title] has been transferred to, and wiII appear in, the Annual Report of the Superintendent for the year 1883.” Probably the article in the Report for 1883 that is the successor of this unprinted piece is “Determinations of Gravity at Allegheny, Ebensburgh, and York, Pa., in 1879 and 1880.”

[Eulogy] “Tribute to the Memory of Carlisle P. Patterson, Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey from 1874 to 1881.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 77, 47th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 559–563; Peirce’s comments are at p. 563.

“A New Rule for Division in Arithmetic.”

Science, vol. 2 (21 December), 788–789.

Studies in Logic, By Members of the Johns Hopkins University.

Edited by C. S. Peirce, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. The following parts of the book are by Peirce: “Preface” iii-vi; “A Theory of Probable Inference” 126–181; “Note A (On a Limited Universe of Marks)” 182–186; “Note B (The Logic of Relatives)” 187–203.

Rowland, Henry Augustus. Remarks in accepting the Rumford Medal.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 19, 477–483, at 483.

1884

“On Weights and Measures.”

A discussion of pendulum experiments and weights and measures given before the American Metrological Society meeting at Columbia College in New York City, 30 December. Cited (with summary account of the discussion) in Proceedings of the American Metrological Society, from May, 1884, to December, 1885, New York: Published by the Society, 1885, pp. 46–48, 83.

“The Reciprocity Treaty With Spain.”

The Nation, vol. 39 (18 December) 521, filmed at P 00043, pages 65–66. Signed letter, with editor’s reply.

“On Gravitation Survey.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Newport, 14–17 October. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1884, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 68, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885, p. 12.

“On Minimum Differences of Sensibility.” [co-authored with Joseph Jastrow]

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Newport, 14–17 October. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1884, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 68, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885, p. 12; filmed at P 00281. See P 00303 for the paper as published.

“On the Algebra of Logic.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Newport, 14–17 October. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1884, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 68, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885, p. 13; filmed at P 00281.

Cayley, Arthur. “On Double Algebra.”

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, vol. 15 (3 April) 185–197, at 186–187, 194–197.

[Pendulum research] “Determinations of the force of gravity at Montreal, Canada, Albany, N.Y., and Hoboken, N.J.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1883, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 29, 48th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 27.

[Pendulum research] “Determinations of gravity by pendulum experiments at Baltimore and Washington.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1883, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 29, 48th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 36–37; see also pp. 96–97.

[Pendulum research, determination of longitude] “Occupation of the station at Savannah, Ga., for the determination of the longitude of Saint Augustine, Fla., by exchange of telegraphic signals.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1883, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 29, 48th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 41–42.

“On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 7 (January), 180–202.

1885

“Gravimetric Surveys.”

Lecture given before the Association of Engineers, Cornell University, Friday, 4 December. Cited in The Cornell Daily Sun, Ithaca, New York (Thursday, 3 December), p. 1. Filmed at P 00302.

“The Coast Survey Investigation.”

The Evening Post, New York City, vol. 84 (Friday, 10 August), page 3, column 3.

Schlegel. “C. S. Peirce. On the relative forms of quaternions.”

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik, Jahrgang 1882, vol. 14, part 2, pp. 594–595.

“Connected Pendulums.”

Lecture given before the Mathematical Seminary, Cornell University, Tuesday, 1 December. Cited in The Cornell Daily Sun, Ithaca, New York, Monday, 30 November and Thursday, 3 December.

“On Small Differences of Sensation.” [Co-authored with Joseph Jastrow]

Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 1884, Washington: Government Printing Office, 73–83. Read before the Academy on 17 October 1884 under the title, “On Minimum Differences of Sensibility.” For paper read, see P 00282.

“The Spanish Treaty Once More.”

The Nation, vol. 40 (1 January) 12, filmed at P 00043, page 67. Signed letter.

Review of The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. By the late William Kingdon Clifford.

The Nation, vol. 41 (3 September) 203, filmed at P 00043, pages 68–69. Probably by Peirce.

Review of The Religion of Philosophy; or, The Unification of Knowledge. By Raymond S. Perrin.

The Nation, vol. 41 (19 November) 431, filmed at P 00043, pages 69–70.

[Pendulum research, metrology] “Determinations of Gravity and Comparisons of Standards.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 6–7; see also a reference to these pages (which identifies this as an account of Peirce’s work) at pp. 80–81. Compare a similar brief reference at p. 2; pp. 80–81 filmed at P 00312.

[Pendulum research, metrology] “Determinations of gravity by pendulum experiments, and comparisons of standards in Europe and in the United States.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 40.

[Metrology, pendulum research] “Comparisons of standards of weight and measure, and investigations relating to determinations of gravity.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 80–81.

[Metrology, pendulum research] “Distributions of the parties of the Coast and Geodetic Survey upon the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts and the interior of the United States during the fiscal year 1883–84.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 87–93; Peirce is mentioned at p. 89 and p. 93.

“On the Use of the Noddy for Measuring the Amplitude of Swaying in a Pendulum Support.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 475–482.

“Note on the Effect of the Flexure of a Pendulum upon its Period of Oscillation.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1884, House Ex. Doc. No. 43, 48th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 483–485.

Note [on Peirce and the investigation of the Coast Survey].

Science, vol. 6 (21 August), 158. The letter is dated “Ann Arbor, Mich., Aug. 10.”

Anonymous. “Exhorbitant Expenditures.”

The Washington Post (Saturday, 25 July),.page 1, column 7.

Anonymous. “How the Money was Spent.”

The Washington Post (Sunday, 26 July), page 2, column 1.

Anonymous. “The Coast Survey Scandal.”

The Washington Post (Monday, 3 August), page 1, column 7.

Anonymous. “The Coast Survey Inquiry.”

The Washington Post (Thursday, 6 August), page 1, column 7.

Anonymous. “The Geological Survey Next.”

The Washington Post (Wednesday, 12 August), page 1, column 7.

[Pendulum research at Cornell]

Cited in Cornell Daily Sun, Ithaca, New York, vol. 6 (5 February), page 1, columns 1–2.

1886

“Dr. F.E. Abbot’s Philosophy.”

The Nation, vol. 42 (11 February) 135–136, filmed at P 00043, pages 71–74.

Anonymous. “Executive Proceedings.”

Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Thirty-fourth Meeting Held at Ann Arbor, Mich., August, 1885, Salem: Published by the Permanent Secretary, pp. 545–546, minutes for the executive meeting of Friday Morning, August 28, 1885.

[Pendulum research, metrology]

“Gravity determinations and experimental researches at Washington, D.C., and in Virginia.”

[Pendulum research, metrology] “Distributions of the parties of the Coast and Geodetic Survey upon the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts, and in the interior of the United States during the fiscal, year ending with June, 1885.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1885, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 81–86; Peirce is mentioned at p. 83 and p. 84; compare p. 99.

“Note on a Device for Abbreviating Time Reductions.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1885, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 503–508.

“On the Influence of a Noddy on the Period of a Pendulum.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1885, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 509–510.

Anonymous. Note [on investigation of Coast Survey]

Science, vol. 7 (9 April), 325–326.

Anonymous. “The Present Condition of the Coast Survey.”

Science, vol. 8 (22 October), 359–360.

[Testimony on the Office of Weights and Measures, and on the Gravimetric Survey, Coast Survey].

Testimony before the Joint Commission [etc.], Senate Mis. Doc. No. 82, 49th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 370–378; see also pp. 839, 852. Peirce’s testimony was presented on 24 January 1885.

Greely, Adolphus W. Three Years of Arctic Service.

New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, vol. 1, pp. 67–68, 124–133, 135– 136, 178–180.

Anonymous. “The Coast Survey Scandal.”

The Washington Post (Sunday, 17 October), page 2, column 2.

Anonymous.“Mr. Thorn Heard From.”

The Washington Post (Monday, 18 October), page 2, column 6.

Jastrow, Joseph. “The Psycho-Physic Law and Star Magnitudes.”

American Journal of Psychology, vol. 1 (November), 112–127, at 116, 118, 121n, 125–126.

1887

“Logical Machines.”

The American Journal of Psychology, vol. 1 (November), 165–170.

Bell, Louis. “On the Absolute Wave-Length of Light.”

The American Journal of Science, third series 33, whole series 133, 167–182, at 175, 181, 182.

[Contribution to the Christian Register symposium on Science and Immortality]

In Science and Immortality; the Christian Register Symposium, Revised and Enlarged, Edited and Reviewed by Samuel J. Barrows, Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, pp. 69–76; comments on Peirce’s contribution are at pp. 109–111; a brief biographical statement on Peirce is at p. 135.

Michelson, Albert A. and Morley, Edward W. “On a Method of making the Wave-length of Sodium Light the actual and practical Standard of Length.”

The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, fifth series, vol. 24, 463–466, at 463.

“Criticism on ‘Phantasms of the Living.’ An Examination of an Argument of Messrs. Gurney, Myers, and Podmore.”

Proceedings of the American Society for Phychical Research, old series vol. 1 (December), 150–157.

Gurney, Edmund. “Remarks on Professor Peirce’s Paper.”

Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, old series vol. 1 (December), 157–179.

“Mr. Peirce’s Rejoinder.”

Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, old series vol. 1 (December), 180–215.

Kempe, A.B. “Note to a Memoir on the Theory of Mathematical Form.”

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 42, 193–196.

[Pendulum research] “Determinations of gravity and pendulum experiments.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, House Ex. Doc. No. 40, 49th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 41; see also p. 12.

[Pendulum research] “Gravity research.—Pendulum oscillations at Washington.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, House Ex. Doc. No. 40, 49th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 49.

[PenduIum research] “Determinations of gravity at Ann Arbor, Mich., and at Madison, Wis.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, House Ex. Doc. No. 40, 49th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 85–86.

[Pendulum research] “Distribution of the Parties of the Coast and Geodetic Survey upon the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Coasts, and in the Interior of the United States during the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1886.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, House Ex. Doc. No. 40, 49th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 97–103, see pp. 99, 100, 103.

[Records of pendulum research] “Archives and Library, Coast and Geodetic Survey Office. Report for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1886.”

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1886, House Ex. Doc. No. 40, 49th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 134–137, see pp. 135, 137.

Bell, Louis. “The Absolute Wave-length of Light.”

The American Journal of Science, third series 35, whole series 135, 265–282 plus 347–367.

1888

Trowbridge, John. “Wave-lengths of standard lines.”

The American Journal of Science, third series 35, whole series 135, 337–338.

“Pendulum Observations.”

Report on the Proceedings of the United States Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay, Grinnell Land, by Adolphus W. Greely, House Misc. Doc. 393, Part 2, 49th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 701–714; see also comments by Greely at p. 715 plus comments and tables by Henry Farquhar at pp. 716–729. Includes Index, pp. 735–736.

[References to Peirce’s pendulum researches]

Verhandlungen der vom 21 bis zum 29 October 1887 auf der Sternwarte zu Nizza abgehalten Conferenz der Permanenten Commission der lnternationalen Erdmessung, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer; Neuchatel: lmprimé par Attinger Frères, pp. 3–7. 15–16, Appendix IIa (pp. 1–7, 15–16, and Table IV), Appendix llf (pp. 1–3, 15–17, and Table IV).

[Astronomical observations]

Meteorological Observations made during the years 1840 to 1888 inclusive, Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, vol. 19, part 1: 50, 66–70, 78–81.

1889

Newcomb, S. “The Century Dictionary.”

The Nation, vol. 48 (13 June) 488, filmed at P 00043 page 75. Letter.

“The Century Dictionary.”

The Nation, vol. 48 (20 June) 504– 505, filmed at P 00043 pages 75–78. Signed letter.

Newcomb, S. “The Century Dictionary.”

The Nation, vol. 48 (27 June) 524, filmed at P 00043, pages 77–78. Letter.

Review of Deductive Logic. By St. George Stock.

The Nation, vol. 49 (15 August) 136–137, filmed at P 00043, pages 78–80. Probably by Peirce.

“On Sensations of Color.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 16–19 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1889, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 47, 51st Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891, p. 6. Notice of research grants to Peirce are given at p. 38.

“On Determinations of Gravity.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 16–19 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1889, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 47, 51st Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891, p. 6; filmed at P 00379.

[Pendulum research]

Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887, House Ex. Doc. No. 17, 50th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, references to Peirce’s research at p. 116–117, 88.

Stearns, J. W. “Philosophy in American Colleges and Universities: University of Wisconsin.”

The Monist, vol. 1 (October), 148–156, at 155. Mention that Peirce’s logic is taught in an advanced course instructed by Jastrow.

1890

Review of Epitome of the Synthetic Philosophy. By F. Howard Collins.

The Nation, vol. 50 (27 March) 265, filmed at P 00043, page 82.

“Ribot’s Psychology of Attention.”

The Nation, vol. 50 (19 June) 492–493, filmed at P 00043, pages 83–86.

Review of Pure Logic, and Other Minor Works. By W. Stanley Jevons.

The Nation, vol. 51 (3 July) 16, filmed at P 00043, pages 86–88.

Review of Elements of Logic as a Science of Propositions. By E. E. Constance Jones.

The Nation, vol. 51 (18 September) 234, filmed at P 00043, pages 91–93. Probably by Peirce.

Review of Locke. By Alexander Campbell Fraser.

The Nation, vol. 51 (25 September) 254–255, filmed at P 00043, pages 93–96.

Note [on the first number of the Monist].

The Nation, vol. 51 (23 October) 326, filmed at P 00043, pages 96–97. Probably by Peirce.

Review of Our Dictionaries, and Other English-Language Topics. By R. O. Williams.

The Nation, vol. 51 (30 October) 349, filmed at P 00043, pages 97–98.

A. B. C. “The ‘Pons Asinorum’.”

New York Daily Tribune (Friday, 8 Dec., 1890), page 10, column 2.

W. L. S. “The ‘Pons Asinorum’.”

New York Daily Tribune (Tuesday, 19 Dec., 1890), page 16, columns 5–6.

Anonymous. “Herbert Spencer Attacked [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 23 March), page 4, column 4.

“Herbert Spencer’s Philosophy. Is it Unscientific and Unsound?—Its Pretensions Attacked and a Demonstration Called For.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 23 March), page 4, columns 6–7. Signed “Outsider.”

Anonymous. “Herbert Spencer Defended [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 30 March), page 4, column 4.

Anonymous. “Spencer Ably Defended [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 30 March), page 13, column 1.

KAPPA. “Flaws in ‘Outsider’s’ Reasoning.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 30 March), page 13, columns 1–2.

R. G. E. “A Call for Specifications.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 30 March), page 13, columns 2–4.

Messenger, H. J., Jr. “Two Points Fairly Met.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 30 March), page 13, column 4.

Anonymous. “Where are the Foes of Spencer?” [editorial]

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 6 April), page 4, columns 3–4.

Anonymous. “Spencer’s Philosophy [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 6 April), page 13, column 1.

Dawson, Edgar R. “Asking Too Much.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 6 April), page 13, columns 2–3.

Opperg, Carl. “Experience and Intuition.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 6 April), page 13, columns 3–4.

W. H. B. “A Philosophical Critic.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 6 April), page 13, column 4.

Anonymous. “The Critics of Spencer [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 13 April), page 4, column 4.

Anonymous. “A Fair Field and No Favor [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 13 April), page 13, column 1.

W. S. N. “Mathematical Weakness of Spencer’s Philosophy.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 13 April), page 13, columns 2–3.

H. L. P. “Specialists and Generalizers.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 13 April), page 13, column 3.

S. D. R. “Where Spencer Fails.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 13 April), page 13, columns 3–4.

Dawson, Edgar R. “The Spencer Discussion as to Reversed Velocities.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 20 April), page 13, column 1.

R. G.E. “Force and Life.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 20 A pr il), page 13, columns 1–2.

W. E. S. “Space and Form.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 20 April), page 13, columns 2–3.

West, George E. “Evolution and Gravitation.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 20 April), page 13, column 3.

W. H. B. “The Evolution of Scientific Religion.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 20 April), page 13, column 3.

Anonymous. “Light for ‘Outsider’ [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 27 April), page 4, column 5.

Anonymous. “Facts about Spencer [editorial].”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 27 April), page 13, column 1.

Youmans, W. J. “Mr. Spencer’s Rank as a Philosopher.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 27 April), page 13, columns 1–3.

Janes, Lewis G. “The Grandeur of Spencer’s System.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 27 April), page 13, columns 3–4.

Iles, George. “Seventy Years Old To-day.”

The New-York Times, vol. 39 (Sunday, 27 April), page 13, columns 4–6.

Hegeler, Edward C. “Religion and Science.”

The Open Court, vol. 4, 2473–2474.

Carus, Paul. “The Unity of Truth.”

The Open Court, vol. 4, 2501–2502.

Schröder, Ernst.

Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik (Exakte Logik), vol. 1

“The Architecture of Theories.”

The Monist, vol. 1 (January), 161–176.

Note [on Shea’s history of Duns Scotus].

The Nation, vol. 52 (12 February) 139, filmed at P 00043, page 99.

Note [on Cajori’s The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States].

The Nation, vol. 52 (19 February) 160, filmed at P 00043, pages 100–101. Probably by Peirce.

X. “A Caricature.”

The Nation, 52 (26 February) 178, filmed at P 00043, page 101. Letter.

F. H. L. [F. H. Loud]. “The Teaching of Mathematics.”

The Nation, vol. 52 (12 March) 217–218, filmed at P 00043, pages 101–103. Letter.

Cajori, Florian. “The Teaching of Mathematics.”

The Nation, vol. 52 (12 March) 217–218, filmed at P 00043, pages 101–103. Letter.

“The Teaching of Mathematics.”

The Nation, vol. 52 (12 March) 217–218, filmed at P 00043, pages 101–103. Reply to letters. Probably by Peirce.

“James’s Psychology.—I.”

The Nation, vol. 53 (2 July) 15, filmed at P 00043, pages 104–106.

“James’s Psychology.—II.”

The Nation, vol. 53 (9 July) 32–33, filmed at P 00043, pages 107–110.

Review of Essays, Scientific, Political, and Speculative. By Herbert Spencer.

The Nation, vol. 53 (8 October) 283, filmed at P 00043, pages 112–113.

Review of Geodesy. By J. Howard Gore.

The Nation, vol. 53 (15 October) 302, filmed at P 00043, page 114.

Hoskins, L. M. The Law of “Vis Viva.”

The Nation, 53 (22 October) 313–314, filmed at P 00043, pages 114–115. Letter.

“The Law of ‘Vis Viva’.”

The Nation, vol. 53 (22 October) 313–314, filmed at P 00043, pages 114–115, Reply to letter.

“Abbot against Royce.”

The Nation, vol. 53 (12 November) 372, filmed at P 00043, pages 115–117. Signed letter.

Note [a reply to Hoskins in regard to a dispute about the law of vis viva].

The Nation, vol. 53 (12 November) 375, filmed at P 00043, page 117.

James, William. “Abbot against Royce.”

The Nation, vol. 53 (19 November) 389–390, filmed at P 00043, pages 118–120. Letter.

Warner, Joseph B. “The Suppression of Dr. Abbot’s Reply.”

The Nation, 53 (26 November) 408, filmed at P 00043, pages 120–122. Letter.

Review of Pictorial Astronomy for General Readers. By George F. Chambers.

The Nation, vol. 53 (26 November) 415, filmed at P 00043, pages 123–124.

Abbot, Francis E. “Mr. Warner’s ‘Evidence in Full’ completed.”

The Nation, 53 (3 December) 426, filmed at P 00043, pages 124–127. Letter.

Review of An Introduction to Spherical and Practical Astronomy. By Dascom Greene.

The Nation, vol. 53 (17 December) 474, filmed at P 00043, pages 127–128.

“Astronomical Methods of Determining the Curvature of Space.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, New York City, 10–12 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1891, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 170, 52d Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892, p. 16. R 1028 may be relevant to this paper.

[Discussion of a paper by O. N. Rood] O. N. Rood’s paper, “On a Color System.”

Read before the National Academy of Sciences, New York City, 10–12 April, and “discussed by Mr. Peirce.” Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1891, Senate Mis. Doc. No. 170, 52d Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 16; see P 00461.

W. “Not ‘Pons,’ But ‘Pontes Asinorum,’ Perhaps.”

New-York Daily Tribune, (Friday, 2 January), page 5, column 5.

[Reference to gravity research].

Report of the Superintendent of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 7890, House Ex. Doc. No. 80, 51st Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 104.

“The Doctrine of Necessity Examined.”

The Monist, vol. 2 (April), 321–337.

Carus, Paul. “What does Anschauung Mean?”

The Monist, vol. 2 (July), 527–532, at 528–529.

“The Law of Mind.”

The Monist, vol. 2 (July), 533–559.

“Man’s Glassy Essence.”

The Monist, vol. 3 (October), 1–22.

“The Comtist Calendar.”

The Nation, vol. 54 (21 January) 54–55.

Bôcher, Maxime. “Geometry Not Mathematics.”

The Nation, vol. 54 (18 February) 131. Letter.

Review of The Man of Genius. By Cesare Lombroso.

The Nation, vol. 54 (25 February) 151–153.

Smith, William Benjamin. “Science in America.”

The Nation, vol. 54 (3 March) 169. Letter.

“Science in America.”

The Nation, vol. 54 (3 March) 169, see 0 00488. Reply to a letter. Probably by Peirce.

J. Mel. S. “Is Induction an Inference?”

The Nation, vol. 54 (10 March) 190–191.

Review of Dreams of the Dead. By Edward Stanton.

The Nation, vol. 55 (8 September) 190–191.

[Announcement, correspondence lessons in the Art of Reasoning]

The Open Court, vol. 6 (1 September), 3374.

“Pythagorics.”

The Open Court, vol. 6 (8 September), 3375–3377.

“The Critic of Arguments. I. Exact Thinking.”

The Open Court, vol. 6 (22 September), 3391–3394.

“Dmesis.”

The Open Court, vol. 6 (29 September), 3399–3402.

“The Critic of Arguments. II. The Reader is Introduced to Relatives.”

The Open Court, vol. 6 (13 October), 3415–3418.

Anonymous. [Note on Peirce’s Open Court articles]

Science, vol. 20 (23 September), 173.

Anonymous. “Charles Sanders Peirce.”

Sun and Shade, vol. 4 (August), photogravure numbered XC, with short biographical sketch.

Strobel, Fr. [Bibliographic references to Peirce’s work]

“Namenregister zum 1–15 Bande (1877–1891).” von Fr. Strobel, Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik und Chemie. Peirce’s name is given at p. 132 with references to mentions of his work in the Beiblätter. Additional bibliographic references to Peirce’s articles are to be found in the following volumes of the Beiblätter: 6 (1882), 830; 7 (1883), 80.

“Napoléon lntime.”

Part one of a review of Napoléon lntime, by Arthur Lévy, The Independent, vol. 45 (21 December), 1725–1726.

1893

“Napoléon Intime. Second Article.”

Part two of a review of Napoléon lntime, by Arthur Lévy, The Independent, vol. 45 (28 December), p. 1760.

“Evolutionary Love.”

The Monist, vol. 3 (January), 176–200.

“Reply to the Necessitarians.”

The Monist, vol. 3 (July), 526–570.

Kappa kappa [pseudonym]. Review of The Science of Mechanics.

By Dr. Ernst Mach, The Monist, vol. 4 (October), 152–153, at p. 153.

“Hale’s New England Boyhood.”

The Nation, vol. 57 (17 August), 123–124.

Review of Pioneers of Science. By Oliver Lodge.

The Nation, vol. 57 (7 September) 178–179.

Kral, J. J. “Was Copernicus a German?”

The Nation, vol. 57 (5 October) 248. Letter.

“Was Copernicus a German?”

The Nation, vol. 57 (5 October) 248. Reply to a letter; see O 00534.

“Mach’s Science of Mechanics.”

The Nation, vol. 57 (5 October) 251–252.

Note [on Beckford’s Vathek].

The Nation, vol. 57 (9 November) 350.

“Conundrum.”

The Nation, vol. 57 (16 November) 370. Signed letter.

“Ritchie’s Darwin and Hegel.”

The Nation, vol. 57 (23 November) 393–394.

“Leland’s Memoirs.”

The Nation, vol. 57 (30 November) 414–415.

Review of L’Ennemi des Lois. Par Maurice Barrès.

The Nation, vol. 57 (7 December) 436–37.

“The Marriage of Religion and Science.”

The Open Court, vol. 7 (16 February), 3559–3560.

Carus, Paul “Religion Inseparable from Science.”

The Open Court, vol. 7 (16 February), 3560.

“Cogito Ergo Sum.”

The Open Court, vol. 7 (15 June), 3702. Compare p. 3670.

“What is Christian Faith?”

The Open Court, vol. 7 (27 July), 3743–3745.

[Statement of the mechanical units in use in the United States and Great Britain].

In The Science of Mechanics, by Ernst Mach, translated from the second German edition by Thomas J. McCormack, Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Co., 1893, p. 280–286.

“Prospectus. The Treatise of Petrus Peregrinus on the Lodestone: Latin Text, English Version, and Notes. With an Introductory History of Experimental Science in the Middle Ages. By C. S. Peirce. Printed in two colors on hand-made paper. Bound in fuII Persian Morocco, hand-tooled. 140 pages.”

Privately printed prospectus for an edition of Peregrinus. P. 16. An announcement of this prospectus appeared in The Nation, vol. 58 (11 January 1894) 30 (P 00558), which suggests that it had already been printed in 1893.

“The Principles of Philosophy: Or, Logic, Physics and Psychics, Considered as a Unity, In the Light of the Nineteenth Century.”

Privately printed brochure announcing Peirce’s proposed work in twelve volumes, planned for sale through subscription.

“Rough notes on geometry. Constitution of real space.”

Paper read before the American Mathematical Society, 24 November. Cited in Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 1 (December), 77.

1894

Note [on Langley’s “The Internal Work of the Wind”].

The Nation, vol. 58 (11 January) 31. Probably by Peirce.

“Early Magnetical Science.—I.”

The Nation, vol. 58 (15 February) 124–125.

Note [on Langley’s Internal Work of the Wind].

The Nation, vol. 58 (22 February) 139. Probably by Peirce.

“Early MagneticaI Science.—II.”

The Nation, vol. 58 (22 February) 141–142.

“Funk’s Standard Dictionary.”

The Nation, vol. 58 (8 March) 180–181.

“Lockyer’s Dawn of Astronomy.”

The Nation, vol. 58 (29 March) 234–236.

Review of Basal Concepts in Philosophy. By Alexander T. Ormond.

The Nation, vol. 59 (12 July) 34–35. Probably by Peirce.

“Alchemy and Chemistry.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (23 August) 144–145.

“Helmholtz.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (13 September) 191–193.

“Four Histories of Philosophy.—I.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (27 September) 237–238.

“Four Histories of Philosophy.—II.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (4 October) 251–252.

“Spinoza’s Ethic.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (8 November) 344–345.

“Hallucinations.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (22 November) 381. Signed letter.

Note [on Wundt’s Vorlesungen über Menschen und Thierseele (English translation)].

The Nation, vol. 59 (22 November) 383. Probably by Peirce.

Review of Modern Scientific Whist. By C. D. P. Hamilton.

The Nation, vol. 59 (6 December) 430–431.

“Descartes and His Works.”

The Nation, vol. 59 (27 December) 476–477.

[Exhibition of the arithmetic of Rollandus]

Presented at the meeting of the New York Mathematical Society on 7 April. Cited in Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society, vol. 3 (May 1894), 199–200.

“Mathematics Their Theme.”

The New-York Times (8 April), page 8, column 1. This article is a report on the 7 April 1894 meeting of the New York Mathematical Society at which Peirce exhibited an arithmetic by Rollandus (dated 1424). A translation (presumably by Peirce) of Rollandus’ dedicatory letter is given in this article.

“Prof. Arthur Cayley.”

The Evening Post, New York, vol. 94 (Monday, 28 January), page 7, columns 1–2. See R 1401.

1895

Scott, Mary Augusta. “Prof. Cayley.”

The Evening Post, New York, vol. 94 (Monday, 4 February), page 7, column 2.

Nicolai lvanovich Lobachevsky. By A. Vasiliev.

The Nation, vol. 60 (4 April) 265. Probably by Peirce.

Review of Herbart and the Herbartarians. By Charles DeGarmo.

The Nation, vol. 60 (30 May) 431–432. Probably by Peirce.

“Some Studies of Reasoning.”

The Nation, vol. 61 (4 July) 14–16.

Chemist. “Acetylene and Alcohol.”

The Nation, vol. 61 (19 December) 447. Letter.

Review of Great Astronomers. By Sir Robert S. Ball.

The Nation, vol. 61 (19 December) 453.

“Acetylene and Alcohol.”

The Nation, vol. 61 (26 December) 464. Signed “S.” Probably by Peirce.

Translation of “Photographic Photometry,” by M. J. Janssen.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to July 1894, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 191–196.

Translation of Genius and Degeneration, by Dr. William Hirsch.

New York: D. Appleton and Co. London: William Heinemann, 1897. We have filmed the edition of 1897, published in London by William Heinemann. See drafts in R 1517.

“Number: A Study of the Methods of Exact Philosophical Thought.”

Lecture before the Mathematical Department, Bryn Mawr College. Cited in Annual Report of the President of Bryn Mawr College, 1896–1897, Philadelphia: Alfred J. Ferris, Printer, 1898, p. 35. R 25 is probably for this lecture.

“The Regenerated Logic.”

The Monist, vol. 7 (October), 19–40. See P 00627 and P 00637.

“Benjamin’s History of Electricity.”

The Nation, vol. 62 (2 January) 16–18.

Mackintosh, William D. “Addition and Subtraction.”

The Nation, 62 (9 January) 32–33. Letter.

Review of Science and Art Drawing. By J. Humphrey Spanton.

The Nation, vol. 62 (9 January) 42. Probably by Peirce.

“Kulpe’s Outlines of Psychology.”

The Nation, vol. 63 (23 July) 71–72.

Frischauf, I. “Bemerkungen zu Peirce Quincuncial Projection.”

American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 19, 381–382.

1897

“James Joseph Sylvester”

The Evening Post, New York City, vol. 96 (Tuesday, 16 March), page 7, columns 3–4.

Note [Obituary, J. J. Sylvester].

The Nation, vol. 64 (25 March) 227.

Review of Studies in Psychical Research. By Frank Podmore.

The Nation, vol. 65 (4 November) 362–363.

Review of The Principles of Chemistry. By D. Mendeleef.

The Nation, vol. 65 (25 November) 424.

Note [on Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy].

The Nation, vol. 65 (9 December) 458–459.

Meldola, Raphael. “Proposed Sylvester Memorial.”

The Nation, vol. 65 (30 December) 515.

Note [on Perry’s Calculus for Engineers].

The Nation, vol. 65 (30 December) 518.

Halsted, George Bruce. “Sylvester.”

Science, new series 5, (Friday 16 April), 597–604.

“Reasoning and the Logic of Things.” Cambridge Conference Lectures.

1. February 10, Philosophy and the Conduct of Life; 2. February 14, Types of Reasoning; 3. February 17, The Logic of Relatives; 4. February 21, The First Rule of Logic; 5. February 24, Training in Reasoning; 6. February 28, Causation and Force; 7. March 3, Habit; 8. March 7, The Logic of Continuity. Titles cited in a pamphlet announcing the lecture series. Manuscripts for these lectures survive as follows: 1, R 437; 2, R 441; 3, R 438 or 440 (?); 4, R 442; 5, MSS 444 and 445; 6, R 443 and R 446; 7, R 951; 8, R 948–R 950; also R 435, R 439, R 440, R 940, and R 941.

“The Logic of Mathematics in Relation to Education.”

Educational Review, vol. 15 (March), 209–216. The article ends with the phrase, “To be continued.” but no continuation has been found.

Smith, Harriette Knight. The History of the Lowell Institute

Boston: Lamson, Wolff and Company, references to Peirce’s Lowell Lectures at p. 63 and 88; see also p. 31.

Review of Astronomy. By Agnes M. Clerke, A. Fowler, and J. Ellard Gore.

The Nation, vol. 66 (28 April) 330–331. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on Reye’s Geometrie der Lage].

The Nation, vol. 67 (14 July) 31.

Review of The New Psychology. By E. W. Scripture.

The Nation, vol. 67 (14 July) 38–39. Probably by Peirce.

“The Psychology of Suggestion.”

The Nation, vol. 67 (25 August) 154–155.

Note [on Kerr’s Wireless Telegraphy].

The Nation, vol. 67 (29 September) 242.

Review of Logic, Deductive and Inductive. By Carveth Read.

The Nation, vol. 67 (20 October) 300–301.

Review of The Story of Marco Polo. By Noah Brooks.

The Nation, vol. 67 (24 November) 397.

“Note on the Age of Basil Valentine.”

Science, new series 8 (12 August), 169–176.

“Death of Prof. Bunsen.”

The Evening Post, New York City, vol. 98 (Wednesday, 16 August), page 5, columns 4–6. Reprinted in Progressive Age (see P 00705).

1899

Note [on Kepler’s Somnium].

The Nation, vol. 68 (20 April) 296.

Cajori, Florian. “Galileo’s Reasoning.”

The Nation, vol. 68 (18 May) 376.

“Galileo’s Reasoning.”

The Nation, vol. 68 (18 May) 376. Peirce’s editorial reply to a letter by Cajori. Filmed at O 00687.

“Leibniz Rewritten.”

The Nation, vol. 69 (3 August) 97–98.

Review of Through Nature to God. By John Fiske.

The Nation, vol. 69 (10 August) 118.

Note [on the fifth edition of Berkeley’s works].

The Nation, vol. 69 (24 August) 154. Probably by Peirce.

Review of Observational Geometry. By William T. Campbell.

The Nation, vol. 69 (28 September) 248–249. Probably by Peirce.

“Ford’s Franklin.”

The Nation, vol. 69 (9 November) 355–356.

“The Map-coloring Problem.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, New York City, 14–15 November. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1899, Senate Document No. 117, 56th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900, p. 13. R 153–R 158 may be related to this presentation.

“Professor Bunsen.”

Progressive Age, vol. 17 (1 September), 393–394.

Caldwell, W. “Pragmatism.”

Mind, new series 9 (October), 433–456.

Note [on Lewis’ Treatise on Crystallography].

The Nation, vol. 70 (4 January) 11.

Note [on Pick’s Lectures on Memory Culture].

The Nation, vol. 70 (4 January) 12–13.

Note [on Carus’ Kant and Spencer].

The Nation, vol. 70 (8 February) 109.

“Lyon Playfair”

The Nation, vol. 70 (8 February) 114–115.

Note [on Ripper’s Steam-Engine Theory and Practice].

The Nation, vol. 70 (15 February) 128, filmed at P 00720.

Note [on Atkinson’s Power Transmitted by Electricity].

The Nation, vol. 70 (15 February) 128, filmed at P 00720.

Note [on Pearson’s Grammar of Science, second edition].

The Nation, vol. 70 (15 March) 203–204.

Note [on Hertz’ The Principles of Mechanics Presented in a New Form].

The Nation, vol. 70 (15 March) 204, filmed at P 00725.

“Grosseteste.”

The Nation, vol. 70 (19 April) 302–303.

Review of History of Ancient Philosophy. By W. Windelband.

The Nation, voI. 70 (17 May) 384–385.

Review of Introduction to Ethics. By Frank Thilly.

The Nation, vol. 70 (21 June) 480–481.

Review of Illustrations of Logic. By Paul T. Lafleur.

The Nation, vol. 70 (28 June) 502–503.

Thilly, Frank. “Thilly and Wundt.”

The Nation, vol. 71 (16 August) 131.

Note [on Perry’s mathematical writings].

The Nation, vol. 71 (6 September) 192–193.

Review of Acetylene. By Vivian B. Lewes.

The Nation, vol. 71 (27 September·) 257.

Review of Joseph Glanvill. By Ferris Greenslet.

The Nation, vol. 71 (11 October) 295–296.

Review of A Brief History of Mathematics. By Dr. Karl Fink.

The Nation, vol. 71 (18 October) 314–315.

“Infinitesimals.”

Science, new series 11 (16 March), 430–433. Dated by Peirce as “Milford, Pa., Feb. 18, 1900.”

Translation of “On the Sense of Smell in Birds,” by M. Xavier Raspail.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 7899, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 367–373.

Translation of “The Sculptures of Santa Lucia Cozumahualpa, Guatemala, in the Hamburg Ethnological Museum,” by Herman Strebel.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1899, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 549–561.

Translation of “The Progress of Aeronautics, “ by M. Janssen.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 187–193.

Translation of “The Growth of Biology in the Nineteenth Century,” by Oscar Hertwig.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 461–478.

Translation of “Life in the Ocean,” by Karl Brandt.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 493–506.

Translation of “The Breeding of the Arctic Fox,” by Henry de Varigny.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 527–533.

Translation of “On Ancient Desemers or Steelyards,” by Hermann Sökeland.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 551–564.

“The Century’s Great Men in Science.”

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1900, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 693–699.

“Economy (logical principle of).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 309. Introductory matter (p. ii-xxiv) for this dictionary is filmed here.

“Empirical Logic.” [with R. Adamson]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 318, see also 318–321.

“Equipollence or -cy.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 338.

“Genus (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 411.

“Given.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 414.

“Imaging (in logic).” [with H. B. Fine]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 518–519.

“Implicit (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 525–526.

“Inconsistency.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 529.

“Independence.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 530.

“Index (in exact logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 531–532.

“Individual (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 537–538.

“Inference.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 542–543.

“lnsolubilia.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 554.

“Intention (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 561.

“Involution.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 574.

“Kind.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 600–601.

“Knowledge (in logic).” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 603.

“Laws of Thought.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 1, 641–643, 644. Part of this article is by C. Ladd-Franklin (643–644).

“The Century’s Great Men in Science.”

The Evening Post, New York City, vol. 100 (Saturday, 12 January), section three, page 1, columns 1–3.

“Wallace’s Studies.”

The Nation, vol. 72 (10 January) 36–37.

“William Herschel.”

The Nation, vol. 72 (24 January) 72–73.

‘‘Shaftesbury.’’

The Nation, vol. 72 (31 January) 96–97.

Note [on Bowley’s Elements of Statistics].

The Nation, vol. 72 (28 March) 254.

Review of By Land and Sea. By the Rev. John N. Bacon.

The Nation, vol. 72 (28 March) 258–259.

Review of Le Vocabulaire Philosophique. Par Edmond Goblot.

The Nation, vol. 72 (20 June) 497–498.

“Berkeley’s Works.”

The Nation, vol. 73 (1 August) 95–96.

“Some Physical Books.”

The Nation, vol. 73 (29 August) 172–173.

“Maher’s Psychology.”

The Nation, vol. 73 (3 October) 267–268.

“The National Academy at Philadelphia.”

The Nation, vol. 73 (21 November) 393–395.

Note [on Wall’s Concise French Grammar].

The Nation, vol. 73 (28 November) 415.

Review of Practical X-Ray Work. By Frank J. Addyman.

The Nation, vol. 73 (12 December) 462.

“Pearson’s Grammar of Science. Annotations on the First Three Chapters.”

The Popular Science Monthly, vol. 58 (January), 296–306.

“Campanus.”

Science, new series 13 (24 May), 809–811.

[References to Peirce’s pendulum research]

Verhandlungen der vom 25 September bis 6 October 1900 in Paris abgehaltenen Dreizehnten Allgemeinen Conferenz der lnternationalen Erdmessung, II Theil: Spezialberichte and wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen, Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer, Appendix B, I (p. 330–335).

Translation of “The History of Chronophotography,” by Dr. J. Marey.

In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1901, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 317–340.

1902

“Leading of Proof.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 1. Introductory matter for vol. 2 (p. iii-xvi) is filmed here.

“Leading Principle.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 1–2, filmed at P 00806.

“Lemma.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 3.

“Light of Nature.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 6.

“Limitative.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 6–7, filmed at P 00809.

“Logic.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 20–23.

“Logic (exact).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 23–27, filmed at P 00811.

“Logical.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 27–28, filmed at P 00811.

“Logical Diagram (or Graph).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 28, filmed at P 00811.

“Logomachy.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 30.

“Major and Minor (extreme, term, premise, satz, &c., in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 37.

“Mark.” [in part, with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 43.

“Material Fallacy.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 44.

“Material Logic.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 44–45, filmed at P 00818.

“Mathematical Logic.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 47.

“Matter and Form.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 50–55.

“Maxim (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 55, filmed at P 00821.

“Method and Methodology, or Methodeutic.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 75.

“Middle Term (and Middle).” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 77.

“Mixed.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 87.

“Mnemonic Verses and Words (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 87–89, filmed at P 00825. The first few sentences of this article are by J. M. Baldwin.

“Modality.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 89–93, filmed at P 00825.

“Modulus.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 94, filmed at P 00825.

“Modus ponens and Modus tollens.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 94, filmed at P 00825.

“Monad (Monadism, Monadology).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 98–99. Only part of this article is by Peirce.

“Multitude (in mathematics).” [with H. B. F ine]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 117– 118.

“Necessary (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 143.

“Necessity.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 145–146 filmed at P 00833. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Negation.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2;

“Negative.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 148, filmed at P 00833. Another author continues the article.

“Nominal.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 179.

“Nomology.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 180.

“Non-A (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 180, filmed at P 00838.

“Non-contradiction.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 181, filmed at P 00838.

“Nonsequitur.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 181, filmed at P 00838.

“Norm (and Normality).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 182. Part of the article is by another author.

“Nota notae.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 183, filmed at P 00842.

“NumericaI.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 190.

“Observation.” [with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 198.

“Obversion.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 199, filmed at P 00845.

“Opposition (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 206. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Organon.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 219.

“P (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 253.

“Paradox.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 258.

“Paralogism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 259, filmed at P 00850. Burks, Bibliograohy.

“Parity.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 263.

“Parsimony (law of).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 264.

“PartiaI.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 265, filmed at P 00853.

“Particular.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 265–266, filmed at P 00853.

“Particulate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 266, filmed at P 00853.

“Parva Logicalia.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 266, filmed at P 00853.

“Per accidens.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 276.

“Perseity (1) and (2) Per se.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 281–282. The first two paragraphs are by John Dewey.

“Perspicuity.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 286–287.

“Pertinent.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 287, filmed at P 00860.

“Petitio Principii.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 287–288, filmed at P 00860.

“Philosopheme.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 290.

“Plurality of Causes.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 306–307. The last paragraph is by other authors.

“Poly-.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 309. Part of this article is by J. Jastrow.

“Port Royal Logic.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 310.

“Positive.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 311–312, filmed at P 00866. Part of this article is by John Dewey.

“Possibility, Impossibility, and Possible.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 313–315, filmed at P 00866. Part of the article ending with p. 314, col. 1, is by John Dewey.

“Postpredicament.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 315, filmed at P 00866.

“Postulate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 315–316, filmed at P 00866.

“Pragmatic (1) and (2) Pragmatism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 321–323. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Precise.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 323, filmed at P 00871.

“Precision.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 323–324, filmed at P 00871.

“Predesignate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 324–325, filmed at P 00871.

“Predicable.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 325, filmed at P 00871.

“Predicament”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 325, filmed at P 00871.

“Predicate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 325–326, filmed at P 00871. Part of this article is by another author.

“Predication.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 326–329, filmed at P 00871. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Predicative Proposition.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 329, filmed at P 00871.

“Premise (and Premiss).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 330–331.

“Presumption.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 337. Part of this article is by another author.

“Presupposition.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 338.

“Prime.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 341.

“Primum cognitum.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 341, filmed at P 00883.

“Principal.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 341, filmed at P 00883.

“Priority (with Prior and Prius).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 342–343.

“Privation.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 343, filmed at P 00886.

“Probable Inference.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 353–355.

“Problem.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 355, filmed at P 00888.

“Problematic.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 355–356, filmed at P 00888.

“Progressive.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 358. Part of this article is by J. Jastrow.

“Proof.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 359, filmed at P 00891. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Proposition.” [with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 361–370. Only part of this article is by Peirce and Baldwin (361–362) ; the remainder is by other authors.

“ProsyIlogism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 370, filmed at P 00893.

“Protasis.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 371, filmed at P 00893.

“Provisional.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 373.

“Proximate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 373–374, filmed at P 00896.

“Pure (in philosophy).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 401–402. Part of this article is by J. Dewey.

“Quality (in grammar and logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 408–409.

“Quantity (in logic and mathematics).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 410–412.

“Ratio.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 415. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Ratiocination.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 415, filmed at P 00901.

“Rational.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 415, filmed at P 00901. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Reasoning.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 426–428. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin

“Reductio ad absurdum.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 434.

“Reduction.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 434–435, filmed at P 00905. Part of this article is by J. Royce.

“Regular.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 438–439.

“Relatives (logic of).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 447–450.

“Remote.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 463 Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Represent.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 464.

“Representationism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 464–465, filmed at P 00910.

“Repugnance.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 466.

“Residues (method of).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 467–468, filmed at P 00912.

“Rule.” [in part, with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 481.

“S (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 483. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Saltus.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 484.

“Scientific Method.” [with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 500–503.

“Scope (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 503, filmed at P 00917.

“Secundum quid.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 504.

“Series.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 521. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Sign.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 527–528. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Signification (and Application, in logic).” [in part, with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 528–529, filmed at P 00921.

“Similar (with Similarity, Similitude).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 530, filmed at P 00921.

“Simple.” [two parts of this article are with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 531–532, filmed at P 00921.

“Singular.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 533, filmed at P 00921.

“Solution.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 554.

“Some (in logic).” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 555, filmed at P 00926. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Sophism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 556. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Sorites.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 557, filmed at P 00928. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Species (and Specific Marks, in logic).” [with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 567. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Spurious Proposition.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 588.

“State (and Condition).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 593. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Subalternation.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 606.

“Subcontrary.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 607, filmed at P 00933.

“Subject (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 608–610. Part of this article is by J. M. Baldwin.

“Sublation.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 611, filmed at P 00935.

“Substitution (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 614–615.

“Subsumption.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 615, filmed at P 00937. Part of this article is by K. Groos.

“Sufficient Reason.” [in part, with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2,

“Summum Genus.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 621.

“Supposition.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 624–625.

“Syllogism.” [in part, with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 628–639. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Symbol.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 640.

“Symbolic Logic or Algebra of Logic.” [in part with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 640–651, see P 00887. Parts of this article are by other authors. This entry contains an account of Peirce’s system of Existential Graphs. Filmed at P 00943.

“Symbolical.” ·

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 651, filmed at P 00943.

“Synechism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 657.

“Synthetic (-al).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 658–659.

“Tautology.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 663.

“Term.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 675–677. Parts of this article are by other authors.

“Testimony.” [with J. M. Baldwin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 686.

“Thema.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 691–692.

“Theorem.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 693, filmed at P 00951.

“Theory (in science).” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 693–694, filmed at P 00951. Part of this article is by S. Newcomb.

“Thesis.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 695, filmed at P 00951.

“Transposition (in logic).” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 713.

“Tree of Porphyry.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 713–714, filmed at P 00955.

“Trilemma.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 715, filmed at P 00955.

“Trivium.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 716.

“Truth and Falsity (1) and (2) Error.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 716–720, filmed at P 00958. Parts of this article are by other authors.

Dewey, John. “Tychism.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, Macmillan: New York, vol. 2, 721.

“Ultimate.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 723–724.

“Uniformity.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 726–731.

“Unity (and Plurality).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 734–736. Parts of this article are by J. Dewey.

“Universal (and Universality).” [in part, with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 737–741, see P 00906. Part of this article is by J. Dewey. Filmed at P 00963.

“Universe.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 742.

“Vague (in logic).”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 748.

“Validity.” [with C. Ladd-Franklin]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 748–749, filmed at P 00966.

“Verification.”

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 761–762.

“Virtual.”

>Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol. 2, 763–764, filmed at P 00968.

“Whole (and Parts).” [in part, with J. M. Baldwin and G. F. Stout]

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. J. M. Baldwin, New York: Macmillan, vol.2, 814–815.

Jastrow, Joseph. “Belief and Credulity.”

Educational Review, vol. 23 (January), 22–49.

“Pasteur.”

The Nation, vol. 74 (6 March) 192–194.

“Gidding’s Inductive Sociology.”

The Nation, vol. 74 (3 April) 273–274.

“The National Academy of Sciences.”

The Nation, vol. 74 (24 April) 322–324.

Review of The Story of the Vine. By Edward R. Emerson.

The Nation, vol. 74 (29 May) 433–434.

Note [on Delta’s Charades].

The Nation, vol. 75 (10 July) 31.

Note [on Atkinson’s Electrical and Magnetical Calculations].

The Nation, vol. 75 (17 July) 53. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on Forsyth’s Theory of Differential Equations, vol. 4].

The Nation, vol. 75 (24 July) 71. The Nation erroneously cites Thorpe as the author of this book.

“Royce’s World and the Individual.”

The Nation, vol. 75 (31 July) 94–96.

“Thorpe’s Essays in Historical Chemistry.”

The Nation, vol. 75 (21 August) 153–154.

“Paulsen’s Kant.”

The Nation, vol. 75 (11 September) 209–211.

Review of The Principles of Logic. By Herbert Austin Aikins.

The Nation, vol. 75 (18 September) 229–230.

Review of The Theory of Optics. By Paul Drude.

The Nation, vol. 75 (2 October) 273. A short note on this book is at vol. 75 (24 July 1902) 71. That note couId be by Peirce. See P 00982.

“Ellwanger’s Pleasures of the Table.”

The Nation, vol. 75 (18 December) 485–486.

Review of Sundials and Roses of Yesterday. By Alice Morse Earl.

The Nation, vol. 75 (25 December) 506–507.

“The Classification of the Sciences.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 15–17 ApriI. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1902, Senate Document No. 81, 57th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 13. It is very likely that R 1339 is the final draft of this paper.

[Majority report, committee on Weights, measures, and coinage, National Academy of Sciences]

Peirce was a co-signer of the report as a member of this committee of the National Academy of Sciences. The report was presented at the meeting of 15–17 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1902, Senate Document No. 81, 57th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 13, filmed at P 00995.

“The Color System.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 15–17 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1902, Senate Document No. 81, 57th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 13, filmed at P 00995.

“The Postulates of Geometry.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 15–17 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1902, Senate Document No. 81, 57th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 13, filmed at P 00995.

Bumstead, Henry A. “Josiah Willard Gibbs.”

The American Journal of Science, fourth series 16, whole series 166 (September), 187–202, at 195.

1903

Davis, Ellery W. “Some Groups in Logic.”

Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, second series 9 (April), 346–348.

Smith, Percey F. “Josiah Willard Gibbs, PH.D., LLD. A Short Sketch and Appreciation of his Work in Pure Mathematics.”

Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, second series 10 (October), 34– 39, at 36, 38.

Review of Euclid: His Life and System. By Thomas Smith.

The Nation, vol. 76 (29 January) 99–100.

Ames, J. S. “A Correction.”

The Nation, 76 (19 March) 226. Letter.

Note [on Fiske’s Cosmic Philosophy].

The Nation, vol. 76 (2 April) 269.

“The National Academy Meeting.”

The Nation, vol. 76 (30 April) 349–351.

“Hegel’s Logic Interpreted.”

The Nation, vol. 76 (21 May) 419–420, filmed at P 01013.

“Clerke’s Astrophysics.”

The Nation, vol. 77 (30 July) 98–99.

Note [on Cohn’s Tests and Reagents].

The Nation, vol. 77 (3 September) 189.

Note [on Perrine’s Conductors for Electrical Distribution].

The Nation, vol. 77 (10 September) 208, see P 01023.

Anonymous. Note [on British Science].

The Nation, vol. 77 (10 September) 219. Peirce mentions this note at vol. 77 (17 September 1903) 229.

“British and American Science.”

The Nation, vol. 77 (1 October) 263–264.

H. T. “The Decline of Mathematics in England.”

The Nation, vol. 77 (1 October) 265.

“Practical Application of the Theory of Functions.”

The Nation, vol. 77 (22 October) 320, see O 00999. Filmed at 0 01029.

“Francis Ellingwood Abbot.”

The Nation, vol. 77 (5 November) 360. Signed letter.

King, Irving. “Pragmatism as a Philosophic Method.”

Philosophical Review, vol. 12, 511–524.

Translation of “On the Absorption and Emission of Air and Its Ingredients for Light of Wave-Lengths from 250µµ to 100µµ,” by Victor Schumann.

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 29 (no. 1413), 1–30, Washington: Smithsonian Institution.

Furtwängler, Philip. “Die Mechanik der einfachsten physikalischen Apparate und Versuchsanordnungen.”

Encyklopädie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, part 2 of vol. 4, p. 1–37.

1904

“French Academy of Sciences.”

The Evening Post, New York City, vol. 103 (Saturday, 5 March), third section, page 1, columns 1–3.

Carus, Paul. “Pasigraphy—A Suggestion.”

The Monist, vol. 14 (July), 565–582, at 566n.

Note [on four books on electricity: Walmsley, Foster and Porter, Barnett, and Parr].

The Nation, vol. 78 (11 February) 110. Probably by Peirce.

“Fahie’s Galileo.”

The Nation, vol. 78 (11 February) 113–115.

Note [on Campbell’s Introductory Treatise on Lie’s Theory of Finite Continuous Transformation Groups].

The Nation, vol. 78 (3 March) 171, filmed at P 001043. Probably by Peirce.

“The Metric Fallacy.”

The Nation, vol. 78 (17 March) 215–216.

Note [on van’t Hoff’s Physical Chemistry in the Service of the Sciences].

The Nation, vol. 78 (24 March) 231. Probably by Peirce.

“Comte’s Philosophy.”

The Nation, vol. 78 (28 April) 335–336.

Note [on Jones’s Notes on Analytical Geometry].

The Nation, voI. 78 (19 May) 393.

Note [on Ryder’s Electric Traction}.

The Nation, vol. 78 (26 May) 411.

Note [on Hawkins and Wallis’s The Dynamo].

The Nation, vol. 78 (26 May) 411, see P 01023. Filmed at P 01053.

“Turner’s History of Philosophy.”

The Nation, vol. 79 (7 July) 15–16.

“Logical Lights.”

The Nation, vol. 79 (15 September) 219–220.

Review of Outlines of Psychology. By Josiah Royce.

The Nation, vol. 79 (29 September) 264–265.

Note [on Mendeleef’s An Attempt Toward a Chemical Conception of the Ether].

The Nation, vol. 79 (17 November) 396. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on Murray’s Introduction to Psychology].

The Nation, vol. 79 (17 November) 396, filmed at P 01062. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on Cajori’s Introduction to the Modern Theory of Equations].

The Nation, vol. 79 (17 November) 396, filmed at P 01062. Probably by Peirce.

“The National Academy in New York.”

The Nation, vol. 79 (1 December) 432–434.

“Note on the Simplest Possible Branch of Mathematics.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 19–21 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1904, Senate Doc. No. 178, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905, p. 14.

“On Topical Geometry.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, New York City, 15–16 November. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1904, Senate Doc. No. 178, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905, p. 16, filmed at P 01068. Notes for this lecture survive as R 95.

[Letter on a proof of the distributive principle]

In “Sets of Independent Postulates for the Algebra of Logic.” by Edward V. Huntington, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 5, 288–309, at 300f.

Ruger, Henry A. What Pragmatism Is. C. S. Peirce. The Monist, April, 1905.

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 2 (7 December), 694–695.

1905

“What Pragmatism Is.”

The Monist, vol. 15 (April), 161–181. Two internal dates by Peirce are included: main text as “Milford, Pa., September, 1904” and a postscript as “Feb. 9, 1905.”

“Substitution in Logic.”

The Monist, vol. 15 (April), 294–295. Signed by Francis C. Russell, though suspected to be by Peirce, based on correspondence in the Harvard MSS.

“Issues of Pragmaticism.”

The Monist, vol. 15 (October), 481–499.

Peterson, James B. “Some Philosophical Terms.”

The Monist, vol. 15 (October), 629–633. This is mentioned by Peirce in “Mr. Peterson’s Proposed Discuss ion.” The Monist, vol. 16 (January 1906), 147–151.

“Royce’s Spencer.”

The Nation, vol. 80 (26 January) 71–72.

“The National Academy of Sciences.”

The Nation, vol. 80 (27 April) 327–328.

Note [on Garcin’s N-Rays].

The Nation, vol. 80 (11 May) 374.

Review of James Watt. By Andrew Carnegie.

The Nation, vol. 80 (29 June) 527–528.

Note [on Hampson’s Radium Explained].

The Nation, vol. 81 (13 July) 33–34, filmed at P 01098.

“Wundt’s Principles of Physiological Psychology.”

The Nation, vol. 81 (20 July) 56–57.

Review of A Treatise on Chemistry. By Sir H. E. Roscoe and C. Schorlemmer.

The Nation, vol. 81 (7 September) 205–206, filmed at P 01103.

Note [on Shields’s Philosophia Ultima].

The Nation, vol. 81 (26 October) 340.

Note [on Fine’s College Algebra].

The Nation, vol. 81 (26 October) 340–341, filmed at P 01107. Probably by Peirce.

Note [on de Wiart’s La Cité Ardente].

The. Nation, vol. 81 (9 November) 382.

“The National Academy of Sciences at New Haven.”

The Nation, vol. 81 (23 November) 417–419.

“Gosse’s Sir Thomas Browne.”

The Nation, vol. 81 (14 December) 486–488.

“The Relation of Betweenness and Royce’s O-collections.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, New Haven, 14–15 November. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1905, Senate Document No. 144, 59th Congress, 1st Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1906, p. 15. pp. 5–17, App. p. 21–39.

Sabine, George H. What Pragmatism Is. C. S. Peirce.

In The Philosophical Review, vol. 14 (September), 628–629.

Leith, Charles Kenneth. “Rock Cleavage.”

United States Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 239, at 109–110.

Bourgeois, R. and Furtwängler, Ph. “Kartographie.”

Encyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften, part 1 of vol. 6, Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, at p. 17, 248, 287–289.

1906

Fullerton, George Stuart. An Introduction to Philosophy.

New York: The Macmillan Co., at p. 219–220.

“Mr. Peterson’s Proposed Discussion.”

The Monist, vol. 16 (January), 147–151.

“Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism.”

The Monist, vol. 16 (October), 492–546.

Review of Radio-Activity. By E. Rutherford.

The Nation, vol. 82 (18 January) 61.

“Alfred Russel Wallace.”

The Nation, vol. 82 (22 February) 160–161.

“Haldane’s Descartes.”

The Nation, vol. 82 (22 March) 242–243.

“Meeting of the National Academy of Sciences.”

The Nation, vol. 82 (26 April) 341–342.

Note [on Clerke’s System of the Stars].

The Nation, vol. 83 (26 July) 78.

“Aristotle’s Ethics.”

The Nation, vol. 83 (13 September) 226–227.

“Recent Developments of Existential Graphs and their Consequences for Logic.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 16–18 April. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1906, Senate Document No. 308, 59th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907, p. 15. R 490 is a set of notes for this presentation. pp. 5–20, App. C pp. 33–38.

“Phaneroscopy, or Natural History of Signs, Relations, Categories, etc.: A method of investigating this subject expounded and illustrated.”

Paper read before the National Academy of Sciences, Boston, 20–22 November. Cited in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1906, Senate Document No. 308, 59th Congress, 2d Session, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907, p. 18, filmed at P 01140. R 299 is probably a draft for this lecture.

Sabine, George H. Issues of Pragmaticism. Charles S. Peirce.

In The Philosophical Review, vol. 15 (September), 565–566.

Lalande, André. “Pragmatisme et Pragmaticisme.”

Revue philosophique, voI. 61, 121–146.

“Men of Science in Session.”

The Sun, New York City, vol. 74 (Wednesday, 28 November), page 6, columns 5–7, page 7, columns 1–4.

“Mars as a Place to Inhabit.”

The Sun, New York City, vol. 74 (Sunday, 2 December, first section), page 8, columns 5–6.

Review of The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs.

The Nation, vol. 84 (24 January) 92.

1907

Review of A History of Chemistry. By Ernest von Meyer.

The Nation, vol. 84 (21 February) 181–182.

Note [on Stickney’s Organized Democracy].

The Nation, vol. 85 (12 September) 229.

Newcomb, Simon. “The Work of George W. Hill.”

The Nation, vol. 85 (31 October), 396.

“The Work of George W. Hill.”

The Nation, vol. 85 (31 October), 396, filmed at P 00158. Peirce’s editorial reply to a letter by Newcomb.

“Lord Kelvin.”

The Nation, vol. 85 (19 December) 570–571. Obituary.

Note [obituary of Lord Kelvin].

The Nation, vol. 85 (26 December) 579.

Cunningham, G.W. Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism. C. S. S. Peirce.

In The Philosophical Review, vol. 16 (September), 564–565.

Stein, Ludwig. “Der Pragmatismus.”

Archiv für systematische Philosophie, vol. 14, 1–9, 143–188.

1908

“A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God.”

The Hibbert Journal, vol. 7 (October), 90–112.

Lovejoy, A. O. “The Thirteen Pragmatisms.’’

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, vol. 5, 5–12, 29–39.

“Some Amazing Mazes: The First Curiosity.”

The Monist, vol. 18 (April), 227–241.

Boodin, John E. “Philosophic Tolerance. A Winter Revery.”

The Monist, vol. 18 (April), 298–306, including the “ Editorial Comment” by Carus on page 306.

Carus, Paul. “Pragmatism.”

The Monist, vol. 18 (July), 321–362.

Note [obituary of Oliver Wolcott Gibbs].

The Nation, vol. 87 (17 December) 609.

“A Letter from Mr. Peirce.”

The Open Court, vol. 22 (May), 319. The letter refers to an earlier article in the same journal by Paul Carus at vol. 22 (April 1908), 234–246.

“The Fortieth Anniversary of The Nation.”

In Letters and Memorials of Wendell Philips Garrison, Literary Editor of ‘The Nation” 1865– 1906, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 133–164. Peirce’s contributions are at p. 140, 156–157.

1909

“Some Amazing Mazes: A Second Curiosity.”

The Monist, vol. 19 (January), 36–45.

Carus, Paul. “A Postscript on Pragmatism.”

The Monist, vol. 19 (January), 85–94.

Carus, Paul. “A German Critic of Pragmatism.”

The Monist, vol. 19 (January), 136–148.

[Research grants to Peirce]

Summarized in Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1908, Senate Doc. No. 770, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909, p. 39–41.

[Portion of a letter on non-Aristotelian logic]

In “The Nature of Logical and Mathematical Thought.” by Paul Carus, The Monist, vol. 20 (January), 33–75, at p. 45.

1910

[Portion of a letter on non-Aristotelian logic]

In “Non-Aristotelian Logic.” by PauI Carus, The Monist, vol. 20 (January), 158–159.

Boodin, John E. “Pragmatic Realism.”

The Monist, vol. 20 (October), 602–614.

Carus, Paul. “Editorial Comment.”

The Monist, vol. 20 (October), 614–615.

Boodin, John Elof. “From Protagoras to William James.”

The Monist, vol. 21 (January) 73–91.

1911

“A method of computation.”

Paper read by title before the National Academy of Sciences, 21–22 November. Cited in

“The reasons of reasoning, or grounds of inferring.”

Paper read by title before the National Academy of Sciences, 21–22 November. Cited in

Peirce, Herbert Henry Davis. “Charles Sanders Peirce” [obituary].”

Boston Evening Transcript (Saturday, 16 May), part 3, page 3, columns 5–6. By C. S. Peirce’s brother.

1914

Anonymous. [obituary of Peirce].

The Nation, vol. 98 (23 April), 473.

Franklin, Fabian. “The Lonely Heights of Science.”

The Nation, vol. 98 (30 April) 489–490.

Jastrow, Joseph. “The Passing of a Master Mind.”

The Nation, vol. 98 (14 May) 571. Letter.

[Notice of Peirce’s death.]

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 49 (13 May), p. 659.

[Obituary of Peirce]

Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1914, Senate Doc. No. 989, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 13, 46.

1915

Royce, Josiah, and Kernan, Fergus. “Charles Sanders Peirce.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, vol. 13, 701–709.

1916

Dewey, John. “The Pragmatism of Peirce.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 13, 709–715, filmed at O 01241.

Ladd-Franklin, Christine. “Charles S. Peirce at the Johns Hopkins.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 13, 715–722, filmed at O 01241.

Jastrow, Joseph. “Charles Sanders Peirce as a Teacher.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 13, 723–726, filmed at O 01241.

Cohen, Morris R. “Charles S. Peirce and a Tentative Bibliography of his Published Writings.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 13, 726–737, filmed at O 01241.

Anonymous. “A List of Articles, Mostly Book Reviews, Contributed by Charles Sanders Peirce to ‘The Nation’.”

The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, vol. 15, 578–584.

1918

“A Philosopher’s Political Diagnosis.”

In New York: A Symphonic Study in Three Parts, by Melusina Fay Peirce, New York: Neale Publishing Company, part II, pp. 100–104. The material by C. S. Peirce printed here was written sometime between 1865 and 1870.

Jastrow, Joseph. “The Widow of Charles S. Peirce [obituary of Juliette Peirce].”

Science, new series 80 (Friday 16 November), 440–441.

1934

Robin Catalogue


We are making this catalog available through the kindness of Prof. Richard Robin, who gifted the copyright to the Peirce Edition Project. This electronic edition of the Robin Catalog was prepared by Prof. Dr. Michael Otte's Institut fuer Didaktik der Mathematik at Universitaet Bielefeld in Germany. We are extremely grateful to Prof. Dr. Otte and Dr. Michael Hoffmann for providing the computer base file.

Please bear in mind that the composition dates given in the catalog are those determined by Richard Robin and his associates over twenty years ago. Annotations will be added later to make corrections and give composition dates established by the Peirce Edition Project.

The old version of the Robin Catalogue is available from the link below.

      Old Robin Catalogue

Preface


This is a catalogue of and guide to the Charles S. Peirce Papers which are presently housed in the Houghton Library, the rare book and manuscript library at Harvard University. The papers were for the most part received by the Harvard Philosophy Department from Peirce’s widow in the winter of 1914-15, less than a year after his death. These are the papers which have been worked on over the years by several scholars, initially by Josiah Royce, who unfortunately died before much progress was made, more recently by Charles Hartshorne, Paul Weiss, and Arthur Burks, as editors of the Collected Papers,* and most recently by Max H. Fisch, in connection with the preparation of an intellectual biography of Peirce.
The papers have been divided into two parts. Part One consists principally of manuscripts; Part Two, of correspondence. The manuscripts range over the whole of Peirce’s intellectual life and include as anyone familiar with Peirce might expect manuscripts on logic, mathematics, metaphysics, and pragmatism. Also included are Peirce’s scientific manuscripts, his manuscripts in the history of science and in linguistics, his reviews and translations, and various other manuscripts, many of biographical interest. In addition to the manuscripts, there is a considerable body of correspondence which ranges over much of Peirce’s private and professional life. Placed with this correspondence, but organized separately, is the correspondence of Peirce’s second wife Juliette, the correspondence among various members of Peirce’s family, and some miscellaneous correspondence.
In the fall of 1960 when I began my work on the Catalogue, Peirce’s papers had been assembled for the convenience of those who, like myself, were engaged in one or another of several Peirce projects. Although the papers were all in one place, there were, in fast, three separate sets of Peirce materials, all organized, with a catalogue for one and a catalogue of sorts for another, but none for the third. The bulk of the Peirce Collection at Harvard, consisting of sixty-one boxes and bundles, had been maintained in the Archives of Widener Library The "Archives" material had been organized, boxed, and catalogued in 1941 by Knight W. McMahan. McMahan's ninety-nine page typewritten "Catalogue of the C. S. Peirce Manuscripts," with its description of what the boxes contained,


* Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, Vols. I-VIII, Harvard University Press, 1931-1958.


served well the needs of Peirce scholars who sought to examine the contents of those boxes and, although incomplete, it came as close as was possible at that time to putting Peirce’s papers into some kind of final order. Later John F. Boler contributed an eleven-page addition which dealt more effectively than McMahan's catalogue had with Peirce’s book reviews.
Another distinguishable part of the Peirce Collection, also sizable but of less importance than the material located in the Archives, had been maintained in Houghton Library. The "Houghton" material consisted of some nineteen boxes which had neither been classified nor catalogued until a preliminary arrangement and listing of this material was effected in 1960 by John Boler in his "Interim Catalogue," a typescript of thirteen pages.

The third distinguishable part of the Peirce Collection the correspondence had been kept mostly with the "Archives" material and had been partially organized by McMahan at the time he was working on his catalogue. But since then, in 1960 to be specific, the collection of family correspondence, formerly in the Benjamin Peirce Papers in the Archives had been transferred to the Charles Peirce Collection by authorization of Charles Peirce’s niece, Miss Helen Ellis. Subsequently, more family correspondence found its way into the Collection, again, by authorization of Miss Helen Ellis. By this time, the whole of the correspondence had been completely reorganized.

In addition to the Peirce material noted above, there were miscellaneous manuscripts that had been listed separately in the catalogues of Widener and Houghton; various collections of articles on or by Peirce, some of the articles being annotated; annotated books from Peirce’s library; public documents and photographs; and much unedited, scraplike material, to mention only some of the items which needed to be integrated with the rest. The present catalogue is the attempt to gather several collections and miscellaneous items into one collection. Unquestionably, the fact that so much of the Peirce manuscripts and correspondence had already been ordered or partially ordered, greatly facilitated my own efforts at integration. Clearly, if it were not for the fast that the cataloguing of the Peirce Papers had a history, this catalogue could not have been produced, most certainly not in the time it took to produce it.

Having noted the history of the cataloguing of the Peirce Papers, I would be remiss if I did not mention the contributions of W. F. Kernan and V. F. Lenzen.* Kernan's "List of C. S. Peirce Manuscripts," a nine-page


* For interesting accounts of the early history of the Peirce Papers, see V. Lenzen's "Reminiscences of a Mission to Milford, Pennsylvania," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, I, X (Spring 1965) pp. 3-11 and W. F. Kernan's "The Peirce Manuscripts and Josiah Royce A Memoir Harvard 1915-1916," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, I, 2 (Fall 1965) pp. 90-95.

typescript, was prepared at the time he was assisting Royce in organizing Peirce’s papers and collaborating with him on an article entitled "Charles Sanders Peirce" which appeared in the Journal of Philosophy, December 21, 1916, a memorial issue devoted to Peirce. Lenzen's "Notes on Papers and MSS. in The Charles S. Peirce Collection," a twenty-page typescript, is an evaluation of the contents and the physical condition of the manuscripts which, at the time (December 1917), were sorted into eighty-three boxes. The Kernan and Lenzen typescripts, along with the catalogues of Boler and McMahan, are kept with the Peirce Papers, and are available for consultation.

Needless to say, I am indebted to all those who have shared in the ordering and cataloguing of the Peirce Papers. Nor is my indebtedness limited to those who were actively engaged in cataloguing per se. My indebtedness extends to the several editors of the Collected Papers who were engaged, along with the others, in the work of identifying, classifying, and uniting papers which had become separated. With very few exceptions, the readers of this catalogue and of the microfilm edition of Peirce’s papers which has recently been made available, and even the persons who may in the future use this catalogue as a guide to the original papers themselves, will get only a very inadequate sense of the years of labor that have gone into this sort of preliminary editorial work. For this and other reasons I want to record my indebtedness to those who most recently have been and still continue to be engaged in that same work of identifying, classifying, and reassembling. Besides Max H. Fisch, for whom a special word of gratitude is reserved, I wish to mention especially the contributions of Carolyn Eisele to the mathematics and the history of science sections of the Catalogue, of Ruth B. Fisch to the biography and correspondence sections, and of Don D. Roberts who ordered and provided a page-by-page index of the important Logic Notebook (MS. 339) and who had done considerable work on a number of logic manuscripts. Although each of the persons mentioned had areas of spe-cial interest, their efforts in behalf of the Catalogue were not confined only to those areas. Over the past few years earlier drafts of this catalogue were in active use, and this afforded opportunity for correction and am-plification. The present catalogue is the beneficiary of both. So to those persons mentioned, I owe much of what is valuable in this catalogue; for its failures, I alone am responsible.
My major debt of gratitude is to Max H. Fisch. It is only right to point out the fact that he, along with Ruth B. Fisch, has spent an incredible amount of time on the sort of preliminary editorial work noted above. Therefore, it is not surprising that nearly every page of the Catalogue bears witness to his scholarship and encyclopedic knowledge of Peirce’s life and works. To be more specific: McMahan's catalogue dealt reasonably well with Peirce’s mathematical, philosophical, and scientific papers, but only sketchily with his correspondence and other papers of biographical interest. It was Professor Fisch's extensive work on the correspondence and these other papers which resulted, especially in the case of the correspondence, in the organization exhibited in this catalogue. Moreover, it was he, who, more than anyone else, saw the need, not only for a more adequate catalogue of Peirce’s papers than existed at the time but also for the preservation of the papers themselves. So two projects cataloguing and microfilming were joined and brought to completion under his watchful eye.

This catalogue would not have been possible had it not been for the generosity of the Department of Philosophy of Harvard University, not only for consenting to and encouraging the cataloguing project but also for contributing very substantial financial assistance along the way. Specifically, I want to acknowledge a grant for the academic year 1960-61, wich allowed me to prepare the ground for the Catalogue, and other grants which enabled me to complete the project. I want also to acknowledge my gratitude to Professors Morton G. White and Donald C. Williams, who made up the Peirce Committee of the Harvard Philosophy Department, for their cordial cooperation throughout the years I was engaged on the project; to the Department for permission to quote from the unpublished manuscripts; and to the Department, again, for its generous subsidy that cleared the way for publication of the Catalogue.

I also wish to express my gratitude to the Henry P. Kendall Foundation for a grant-in-aid which got me through one summer and to the Mount Holyoke College Grants Committee for a research grant which helped to defray the cost of preparing the manuscript for publication. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the librarians, both at Harvard and Mount Holyoke College, whose cooperation contributed to the success of this project, but in particular to Miss Carolyn Jakeman of the Houghton Library and to Dr. William Bond, its Director. I would also like to express my thanks to Leone Barron, Director of the University of Massachusetts Press, for her unfailing enthusiasm and valuable editorial advice; to several Mount Holyoke College students for help in various ways, but principally to Miss Diane Goldberg for her help in connection with Appendix II and the General Index; and finally to my wife for her help at different stages in the preparation of the Catalogue.

RICHARD S. ROBIN
South Hadley, Massachusetts
June, 1967

Introduction


It had been evident for some time that an updated catalogue of the Charles S. Peirce Papers was needed, one which would survey the whole Collection, making as widely available as possible a detailed statement of what it contained and answering, so far as possible, the questions scholars raise, including those about the date of manuscripts and their relation to published versions. Indeed the manuscripts and correspondence are so voluminous and unwieldy that it is virtually impossible for anyone to deal with them successfully without benefit of the orientation which a catalogue of the kind envisioned would provide. Moreover, as the prospects of a microfilm edition of the Peirce Papers increased, so did the need for an adequate catalogue, which would reflect an orderly arrangement of the Papers and assist the users of a microfilm edition.
The catalogue which was finally produced is imperfect. It is imperfect because of the frequency of error in what already has been done. More importantly, it is imperfect because of what has not been done; that is, much remains to be done by way of identifying and describing, piecing together scattered fragments, assigning dates to undated manuscripts and letters, and the like. But, imperfect as this catalogue is, it is better than none at all, and all of us who contributed to it recognized that the needs for a comprehensive catalogue now outweighed the advantages of indefinite delay.

ORGANIZATION OF THE CATALOGUE

As noted in the Preface, the Catalogue is divided into two parts. The first part consists of manuscripts and related material; the second part comprises the correspondence, both Peirce’s and the correspondence of others. The organization of the correspondence presented no special problems, but the organization of what may be called the "subject matter" part of the Catalogue was another story, and a brief word concerning the problems encountered and the principle of organization finally adopted is in order.
Of the two alternative ways of organizing a man's papers chronologically and by content neither way, in spite of the obvious advantages of each, was easily adapted to the Peirce Collection. Consider the following problems. If the decision is made to order by chronology, what then does one do with the large quantity of undated papers? (Less than half of the 1,644 catalogue entries are dated and of the dates not supplied by Peirce
himself many are conjectural.) Moreover one would have to expect that some of the material would be cut up rather badly as in those instances where Peirce comments on earlier articles. By virtue of temperament and other needs, Peirce can be described as just as Henry James had been an inveterate "revisionist." His tendency to rework drafts of articles and books left future editors of his manuscripts with the problem of unscram-bling the various drafts, which, in some cases, had been written years apart.
Consider now the problems resulting from a decision to order the manuscripts by content. How does one handle Peirce’s many digressions? Even more significant perhaps is the problem inherent in schemes that emphasize content; namely, the risk one runs of either imposing too much order or not enough order. Organization is rarely innocent, and the greater the organization the greater the risk that one's bias or interpretation will get in the way of a clear presentation of what there is. However, if one chooses to "play it safe" by arranging the manuscripts as much as possible according to content, thereby achieving a spectrum of sorts, and only then drawing the lines at the more palpable breaks, the results will tend to be nondescript. Finally, as was pointed out to me, if an index were eventually prepared, it would cancel out the need for ordering by content in the first place.
A compromise between ordering by chronology and by content seemed called for. But what compromise? One answer was provided by Boler who, at one point, submitted a plan to the Harvard Philosophy Depart-ment which seemed perfectly reasonable and promising. His plan in-volved six steps: (X) following Burks's bibliography of Peirce’s published works (Collected Papers, Vol. VIII, pp. 260-321), locate and file the man-uscripts for each entry; (2) place alternative drafts (and identifiable fragments) with above; (3) from the remaining unpublished material, file what is alike in content with above; (4) also, some of the remaining material, especially complete drafts and identifiable fragments, may be filed chronologically; (5) whenever possible, arrange what remains according to content; (6) finally, classify the remainder of unidentifiable fragments as such. Boler confessed that he became disillusioned about the idea that Steps 3 and 4 would take care of the bulk of the material. I too became disillusioned, and for the reasons Boler gave. But my difficulties with Boler's plan carried somewhat further.
Perhaps the decisive factor in the decision which was ultimately made to compromise while emphasizing content was the fact that the bulk of Peirce’s philosophical and other manuscripts the "Archives" material had already been classified by content, in accordance with a scheme adopted by McMahan. The "Houghton" material which had been cata-logued independently by Boler on the basis of some other scheme was from the point of view of both quantity and quality far less significant.
It was tempting, therefore, to adopt the McMahan catalogue, with its principle of organization, incorporating the "Houghton" material as best one could. In this way, the manuscripts might be consolidated, but even more important, since consolidation might be achieved in other ways, was the amount of time and work that could be saved.
The decision to adopt Peirce’s own classification of the sciences (which in effect, is what McMahan did) was clearly a practical one, but only in part. Independently there are good reasons for turning to Peirce’s classi-ficatory scheme. For one thing, it has the advantage of spreading out Peirce’s manuscripts in an orderly way without making the results appear nondescript and without imposing more order than is absolutely necessary. For another thing, it is Peirce’s scheme, not someone else's, concocted for the occasion.
There are a number of accounts of Peirce’s classificatory scheme of the sciences. In brief, his classification begins with the distinction between a theoretical and a practical science, a distinction based upon the difference of two interests the theoretical interest in attaining knowledge for its own sake and the practical interest in attaining knowledge for the sake of something else. The theoretical branch of science is subdivided into (a) the sciences of discovery and (b) the sciences of review, with the latter dependent upon the former, since review implies the review of something which, in this case, is the information provided by the various sciences of discovery. Indeed, Peirce’s own studies in classification are subsumed under (b), as one might expect.
Although Peirce did classify the practical sciences, he was chiefly con-cerned with the theoretical ones, especially those which fell under the heading "sciences of discovery" or, in other places, "sciences of research," and it is his classificatory scheme for those sciences which turned out to be most useful for our purposes. Below is one of several tabular listings from Peirce’s papers.*

MATHEMATICS
PHILOSOPHY
Phenomenology, or Ideoscopy
Normative Science
Esthetics
Ethics
Logic
Speculative Grammar
Critic
Methodeutic
Metaphysics
IDIOSCOPY, or SPECIAL SCIENCE
Physics
Nomological Physics
Classificatory Physics
Descriptive Physics
Psychics
Nomological Psychics [Psychology]
Classificatory Psychics [Ethnology]
Descriptive Psychics [History]

* This particular list is taken from a manuscript placed with the Matthew Mattoon Curtis correspondence (L107). The manuscript is an incomplete draft of a philosophical autobiography prepared in response to Curtis's request for information concerning Peirce’s logical and philosophical views. For a more complete account of Peirce’s classificatory scheme for the sciences, see Collected Papers, Vol. I, pp. 75-137. For a good summary account, see Thomas Goudge, The Thought of C. S. Peirce (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1950) pp. 44-50.

The above listing is for the sciences of discovery (research) only. It should also be clear that the listing is incomplete, for it fails to give the subdivisions of mathematics, metaphysics, and the idioscopic sciences, especially the last with its elaborate arrangement of suborders, families, and subfamilies.
The listing also fails to indicate the hierarchical character of Peirce’s classificatory scheme. For Peirce, the sciences listed first are independent of those listed later. Or, if you like, when borrowing occurs, each science tends to borrow from those sciences which precede it in the classification. Thus, for example, in the case of the subdivisions of logic, methodeutic rests upon both critic and speculative grammar, critic upon speculative grammar alone vis a vis the divisions of logic, and speculative grammar upon neither, but only upon those sciences (ethics, esthetics, phenomenology, mathematics) which precede it in the hierarchy. Or, more generally, the mathematician, as such, working independently of the other scientists, seeking formal, not material, truth, traces out the necessary consequences of hypotheses which others, to be sure, may posit. Philosophy (all branches) is dependent upon mathematics, but takes precedence over all the special sciences, which follow it in the hierarchical scheme.
If one examines my table of contents, and observes the order in which Peirce’s papers are catalogued, one will note the Catalogue's general adherence to Peirce’s classificatory scheme. The Catalogue lists Peirce’s mathematical works first, and attempts to deal with these works along the lines suggested by Peirce’s division of mathematics into the mathe-matics of logic, of discrete series, of continua and pseudo-continua. The items listed toward the end textbooks, recreations, computations and fragments are conveniently placed there, and have nothing to do with the classificatory scheme for mathematics.
If one ignores pragmatism the next major division of the manuscripts following mathematics and concentrates on the other divisions (phe-nomenology, logic, metaphysics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, geodesy, psychology, linguistics, history, sciences of review, practical science), especially the order in which they occur in the Catalogue, one ought to observe that the remainder of the Catalogue follows Peirce’s classificatory scheme, although this may not be self-evident with respect to some of the divisions Why, for example, does chemistry precede astronomy, both in Peirce’s scheme and in my catalogue? The reason is that chemistry falls under classificatory physics whereas astronomy falls under descriptive physics, and classificatory physics takes precedence over descriptive physics in Peirce’s scheme. Again: Why does linguistics take precedence over history? The answer is that linguistics falls under classificatory psychics, and history, as already indicated, falls under descriptive psychics. Since classificatory psychics precedes descriptive psychics in Peirce’s account, linguistics takes precedence over history.
This is not to say that I have slavishly followed Peirce’s scheme for the classification of the sciences. As a matter of fact, a rigid adherence to Peirce’s scheme is neither required nor desirable. I have followed the scheme only so far as it proved to be advantageous to do so; I have de-parted from it whenever I concluded that by adhering to it the presen-tation of the Peirce material would be hampered Indeed, if one observes closely the organization of this catalogue, one will observe the many liberties taken with Peirce’s classificatory scheme, with perhaps the major liberty taken with respect to the manuscripts on pragmatism.
Pragmatism, as a division or heading, presents a special problem. As things stand, given Peirce’s classificatory scheme, the manuscripts on pragmatism are out of order. They ought to be in closer proximity than they are now to the logical manuscripts. Pragmatism clearly cuts across the divisions of logic, and perhaps ought to have been subsumed under logic, that is, under one or more of its divisions. After all, did not Peirce come to the view that pragmatism is the logic of abduction? The justification for its present position in the Catalogue, as a separate division between mathematics and phenomenology, rests on the desire not to bury pragmatism among the manuscripts on logic, because of the general im-portance of pragmatism in Peirce’s thought and of the lecture series or series of articles of which many of the manuscripts form an integral part.
There are other kinds of problems. One kind concerns the gaps in the Catalogue. To cite one example, Peirce’s classificatory scheme calls for the ethnology of social development, one of the sciences comprising one of the many subdivisions of psychical science. The fact that there is no place or listing for it in the Catalogue means simply that none of the manuscripts of Peirce are concerned specifically with the ethnology of social development.
More serious, perhaps, is the failure of this catalogue to provide separate listings for, say, ethics or speculative grammar. But here the problem was not one of finding manuscripts which dealt specifically with ethical problems or the issues of speculative grammar. Indeed there are many such manuscripts. The problem was frequently that of separating units of larger works lecture series or series of articles or chapters in a proposed book something which this editor was reluctant to do. In such cases, the descriptions attached to catalogue entries and the general index are counted on to direct the reader's attention to subject matter for which the Catalogue provides no separate heading or listing.
Then there is the other kind of problem one runs into when dealing with classificatory schemes generally the problem of how to classify this or that relative to the scheme with which one is working. For example, does this manuscript fall under logic or mathematics? Does that manuscript belong with the manuscripts on pragmatism or somewhere else? Often it is not a simple matter to decide, especially when Peirce digresses and when the digression becomes the most significant feature of the manuscript. Sometimes, usually in the case of notebooks, two quite different articles are begun, which forces the editor to decide their relative importance, with the ever present possibility of judgmental error. When confronted with problems of this kind, I have again counted on my descriptions to call attention to anomalies and the general index to bring similar but widely separated material together.
Finally, there are the outright mistakes. One of these will serve as an example. There is no excuse for separating MSS. 314 and 316, since MS. 316 continues MS. 314. In this case the error was discovered only after the microfilming of the manuscripts was completed. Undoubtedly there are errors of this and other sorts which have yet to be discovered. Work on the Catalogue proceeded on the expectation that errors, both of commission and omission, would be made; it also proceeded in the hope that these errors, when discovered, would be reported and collected, and then, in one way or another, made available to users of this catalogue.

THE FORM OF THE CATALOGUE

The manuscript portion of the Catalogue differs from the correspondence portion with respect to the form employed in presenting the relevant information concerning each entry. For the manuscript portion, each entry is presented in an arrangement of six or seven parts:

1. Title
2. Abbreviated title (Mark)
3. Type of material, whether manuscript, typescript, reprint, or other
4. Publication
5. Date
6. Pagination
7. Description of content

In the Catalogue, Parts 1 and 2 (title) are separated from Parts 3-6 (physical description) which in turn are separated from Part 7 (description of content).
Peirce’s titles are presented without brackets or parentheses, just as they appear in the manuscripts. Title page punctuation is retained and the original spellings have been preserved in all titles without the use of sic to indicate deviations from the norm.
The use of brackets indicates that the title has been supplied by the editor. It goes without saying that when a title has been supplied, it is always in the absence of one provided by Peirce, either because he never provided one or because the title page is missing. In defense of supplying titles may I say that it serves as a convenient way of noting a manuscript's principal content and, in many cases, the supplied title as a brief description of the contents saves space by enabling us to dispense with a formal description at the end. May I also add that the supplied titles are sometimes less misleading than the titles which Peirce himself gives. Although Peirce’s titles no doubt acquaint us with his intentions, do they also acquaint us with the manuscript's contents? Certainly not in those cases where the manuscript progresses only a few pages and where Peirce’s introductory reflections have little or nothing to do with the title. Or, where the manuscript digresses from the topic indicated by the title, and the digression is the manuscript's distinctive feature.
A large number of Peirce’s manuscripts have no title, but some of these possess a mark which is most often found in the upper left-hand corner of the manuscript page. When the mark occurs in conjunction with a title, it frequently stands for a short or abbreviated form of the title. It becomes a matter for conjecture when there is a mark but no title. In any event the occurrence of a mark is indicated by the use of parentheses. When the manuscript possesses both a title and a mark, the procedure is to record the title first and the mark in parentheses second. When the manuscript possesses only the mark, then the mark, distin-guished from the title by the use of parentheses, serves in place of the title.
In the next parts (3-6) I was concerned with identifying the type of material, whether a manuscript or typescript, or reprint, or book, or page proof, or galley proof, or the like. I was also concerned with whether, in the case of typescripts, reprints, books, and proofs, there was any annotation or correction.
Most of the manuscripts were not published. But where publication had occurred this is noted by reference to Burks's bibliography and Fisch's two supplements. For an explanation of both Burks's and Fisch's manner of handling bibliographical references, see my explanations of conventions on p. xxvii f. The Catalogue notes whether a manuscript was published in full or in part, and where publication was in part only, precisely what part was published. The only exception to notification of publication occurs in those cases where a part, or even the whole of a manuscript, was published as part of another author's publication. For example, MS. 620 was published as an appendix to one of Fisch's articles on Peirce,* but there is no indication of this publication in the description of MS. 620. This happens to be a significant publication, but, in other cases, it was difficult to say what was and was not significant, and it did not seem worthwhile to mention every publication of this kind.
When not placed within brackets or qualified in any other way, the given date is Peirce’s. As a rule one date is given and this is the date which is usually recorded on the title page or, in the case of some note-books, on the cover. Most often it is the only date. But where several dates are given, the range of dates is noted in the description.
When the date is placed in brackets, then the date, as in the case of titles, has been supplied by someone other than Peirce. Whereas I supplied the titles, various persons at different times and with varying degrees of confidence supplied the dates. When the date is placed in brackets without any other qualifying mark, then it is presumed to be accurate, derived from reliable internal evidence. A date preceded by "c." is presumed to be an accurate central locus of possible dates. A date followed by a question mark is frankly a "best guess," based on some internal evidence. When the expression "n.d." occurs, it means that for the moment not even a good guess can be made.
The pagination of a manuscript is indicated by two forms, for example, either pp. 1-5 or 5 pp. The first form signifies that the manuscript was numbered by Peirce; the second form gives the editor's count. One difficulty in determining a true page count rests with Peirce’s habit of using the verso of a page of manuscript for calculations or other notes which may or may not be related to the manuscript in question. The question of whether to count a page or not sometimes proved difficult and left room for judgmental error. For additional information concerning pagination, see the guide to the use and consultation of the microfilm edition of the Peirce Papers, prepared by the Harvard University Microreproduction Service, which is reproduced in the next section of this introduction.

* See Studies in the Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce, Second Series, edited by Moore and Robin, University of Massachusetts Press, 1964, pp. 24-29.

In 1915, a few of the manuscripts had become separated from the main Peirce Collection. These were added to the general manuscript collection of the Harvard University Library. They were catalogued separately, each with its own call number. Now that they have been restored to the Peirce Collection, their old call numbers have been added to the description for the purpose of identifying them.
In the interest of economy the content descriptions (Part 7) have been pared down to the bare essentials necessary for a clear indication of what there is. The descriptions tend to be topical rather than critical, serving more the function of an index than an analytical table of contents. Not all entries have descriptions, although bracketed titles are intended in all cases to emphasize the principal content of the manuscript. For the most part Peirce’s own titles serve the same function. When they do not, a formal description is indicated and provided. But, in general, descriptions are provided for the important entries only, except where the lack of a description means either that, in the case of a draft of a complete or more refined version, the manuscript in question says nothing not already contained in the description of that later or refined version or contains no additional information which in the judgment of the editor is worth special notice. In any event the reader should take note of the number of pages of manuscript. If they are few, the topic or topics indicated by the title or by the formal description may not be very well developed.
Throughout the manuscript portion of the Catalogue, although occurring infrequently, are entry numbers for which there are no manuscripts, as distinct from those entries where a manuscript exists but is missing. These "holes" were created by the fast that the manuscripts which were originally there have been recombined with other manuscripts and that this was done after the completion of the microfilming. Rather than renumber, the entry numbers were retained, but left blank. The "holes" may even have a use someday. They might conveniently serve as the means of slipping new Peirce material into the collection, if such material is ever uncovered.
The correspondence constitutes the last portion of the Catalogue and is divided into four parts: the Charles S. Peirce correspondence, which contains all of Peirce’s letters, both those he wrote and those he received; the Juliette Peirce correspondence, which contains all of Juliette Peirce’s correspondence, except such correspondence as involves Peirce jointly and which was, for this reason, placed with his correspondence; the family correspondence, which consists of correspondence among members of Peirce’s family but which does not involve Peirce or his wife Juliette directly; and miscellaneous correspondence.
The form adopted for the correspondence is the simplest possible one. For the Charles S. Peirce correspondence, the correspondents are listed alphabetically, the number of letters and letter drafts noted, and, when these are dated, the dates recorded, except when more than three of them are involved and when more than three are dated, in which case only the first and last dates are given. Where dates were lacking, an attempt was made to supply them, the procedure here being the same as for the manuscripts. Supplied dates appear in brackets, with or without "c." and with or without question marks. The remaining parts of the correspondence follow the form of the first part.
The division of the Catalogue into two parts manuscripts (or, as sometimes represented, subject matter) and correspondence is a bit misleading insofar as it suggests that no correspondence is to be found in the first part and nothing which is classifiable as subject matter is to be found in the second part. On the contrary, an occasional letter draft may be found among the manuscripts; these were filmed with the manuscripts and all but those which appear on the versos of manuscript pages were subsequently placed with the correspondence, once it became clear that they belonged there. Not all of Peirce’s correspondence is personal and business correspondence. There is much which can be described as professional, so much so that if the first few pages and the last were set aside, the remainder could easily be mistaken for manuscript material. Indeed, this is the principal reason why some correspondence was originally placed with the manuscripts.
Finally, a word about the four appendices. Appendix I is a supplement to my catalogue descriptions necessitated by certain discrepancies between the descriptions and what is contained in the microfilm edition of the Peirce Papers. (See the following section of this introduction for an explanation of the discrepancies and the manner of handling them.) Appendix II is a chronological listing of Peirce’s manuscripts. It is hoped that this listing can be expanded some day, as scholars are able to date more of Peirce’s manuscripts. Appendices III and IV are cross-reference tables. Appendix III is a cross-reference table from Burks's bibliography to my catalogue entries and Appendix IV, from McMahan's catalogue to mine. Anyone who so desires can set out from the Collected Papers and reach my catalogue entries through the intermediary of Burks's bibliog-raphy. See Burks's cross-reference index, pp. 325-330 of Vol. VIII of the Collected Papers.

THE MICROFILM EDITION

Two Peirce projects cataloguing and microfilming were linked almost from the beginning. The need for a new catalogue was evident; but so was the need to microfilm Peirce’s manuscripts and correspondence, for the physical condition of Peirce’s papers was a matter of grave concern. Although the entire collection is now kept in the Houghton Library, where temperature and air control give the papers the best chance for survival, it was feared that even with slightly more handling, given normal wear and tear, the deterioration of the papers would be rapid and alarming. With interest in Peirce mounting and with the expectation that the demand for consulting his papers would most likely increase in the years ahead, it was urged that steps be taken to microfilm them, or at least as much of them as there were funds for.
The success of the microfilming project depended in part on achieving a new arrangement of the Peirce Papers, one which would incorporate the efforts of the past, but would yield a single numerical sequence. With the present catalogue, the numbered sequence was achieved. This permitted the microfilming of Peirce’s manuscripts, with all of its advantages of preserving the original manuscript collection from the wear and tear of handling, of providing a record which might serve in place of any parts of the collection that might from time to time be lost, stolen, or destroyed, and finally of making the manuscripts readily available to scholars in all parts of the world.
There are some discrepancies between what was microfilmed and my catalogue descriptions. These are few considering the number of catalogue entries and the principal reason that there are any at all is that errors were discovered in the Catalogue before it was printed but only after the microfilming of the manuscripts was completed. Apart from a major change or two and some minor ones, the microfilm was left un-touched, mainly because of the expense involved in any extensive alteration. An asterisk placed before the catalogue entry number of the manuscript indicates that a discrepancy exists and directs attention to Appendix I "A Supplement to the Catalogue Descriptions."
A short guide to the use and consultation of the microfilm edition was prepared by the Harvard University Library Microreproduction Service in the Fall of 1964. For the benefit of those who will be working with the film and for the additional information concerning the manuscripts themselves, I reproduce the guide here.

This microfilm possesses some apparently anomalous features with which the reader ought to be acquainted to facilitate its use. The major part of the film's unusual features originates in the author's manner of composition.
First it was the author's usual practice to write on one side only of the paper. Less than 5% of the material in this microfilm contained writing on the verso of the page. In the notebooks, Peirce usually wrote only on the recto pages; accordingly, to spare unnecessary expense, only those pages of the notebooks actually bearing text have been filmed. This accounts for the fact that notebooks appear to have been filmed in irregular fashion, sometimes as a single spread and sometimes as a double spread. A similar situation prevails with the material written on loose sheets. In a few instances, both with the notebooks and the loose sheets, Peirce used the opposite sides to make routine calculations, some related and some unrelated to the main body of the work. In most instances, these routine calculations have not been filmed. Where there was doubt about routineness or where the calculations were other than ordinary arithmetic, such material was microfilmed. Some of these data may thus appear to interrupt the normal sequence of the manuscript.
Another unusual feature concerns pagination. The manuscripts fol-low four schemes of pagination: (X) unpaged, (2) either even-numbered or odd-numbered, (3) normal, and (4) iterated pagination. The re-peated pagination almost always occurs in the notebooks when Peirce was constructing a draft If he was dissatisfied with his first draft of page 1, he would go on to the next page, number it also "page 1,'' and continue with his revision until satisfied that he could carry on with page 2, and so on It is not uncommon for a page number to be thus repeated for four or five consecutive drafts before the next sequential number.
Odd-numbered pagination only is common in the notebooks. Evi-dently this was Peirce’s way of indicating his consciousness that he was using only the rectos, or perhaps he was saving the versos for cor-rections or changes. In a few instances, an explanatory target accom-panies each frame of film and states that no pages are missing.
Unpaged material has been placed in sequence insofar as this was ascertainable by the editors, and, of course, insofar as the actual pages were available.
At the end of a numbered sequence of pages, there will occasionally be found a miscellany of pages consisting of broken runs or isolated pages surviving from other drafts.
Another unusual condition arises from Peirce’s practice of starting some notebooks from the front, and upon reaching the center, turning the notebook upside down and beginning anew from the "back." Sometimes the separate contents of such notebooks may be unrelated although they occupy the same physical and bibliographic unit; in other instances, after the notebook was turned upside down, the same material was continued. This condition prevails in little used as well as in full notebooks. Rather than inconvenience the reader of the film with upside down images or reversed pages sequences, all such material has been filmed for normal reading sequence. In each case a notice explaining this situation is filmed at the beginning, the center, and the "end" of the item.
Peirce occasionally constructed from paper a physical device to be removed from a notebook and manipulated. An example is a dough-nut-like device he constructed to elucidate a point in topology. In filming devices, a first exposure has been made with the device in place, a second with the device removed, and if necessary for clarity, a third of the device itself.
Printed editorial forms used in connection with the partial publi-cation of this material by the Harvard University Press in the Col-lected Papers have remained with the collection, and it is possible that a few of these may have been accidentally incorporated into the micro-film. These are of course not a part of the collection and should be ignored.

Postscript


Generally speaking, a catalogue of a man's writing stands as an impersonal record of his achievement. Standing alone it seems to cry out for some kind of personal statement, a portrait of sorts, which would complement the impersonal record. Of course it is a matter of conjecture as to what kind of personal statements or portrait of himself Peirce would have appreciated. In the introduction to a catalogue a panegyric seems somehow out of place. Perhaps it would be best to let the catalogue speak for itself. The display of prodigious intellectuality, creative genius, philosophic and scientific integrity, demonstrated therein, and, for one who knows something of the frustrations and deprivations of Peirce’s personal and professional life, the sense of tragedy that pervades the whole seem to me to be intellectually stimulating and, at times, profoundly moving.

Abbreviations & Conventions


A. autograph

CSP Charles Sanders Peirce

Collected Papers Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, 8 vols., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1931-1958.

JP Juliette Peirce

MS., MSS. manuscript(s)

n.d. no date

n.p. no place, i.e., of publication

n.yr. no year

p, pp. page(s)

PAAAS Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

r recto

Studies in Logic Studies in Logic, By Members of the Johns Hopkins University (edited by Peirce), Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1883.

TS. typescript

v verso

vol., vols. volume(s)

Following the established practice, all references to the Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce will be handled in this manner: first the volume number is given and then, after the decimal point, the paragraph number in that volume. Thus 4.658 means Volume IV, paragraph number 658.

All bibliographical references and cross references are made with respect to Arthur W. Burks's "Bibliography of the Works of Charles Sanders Peirce," Collected Papers, Vol. VIII, pp. 260-321, and to Max H. Fisch's "A First Supplement to Arthur W. Burks's Bibliography of the Works of Charles Sanders Peirce," Studies in the Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce, Second Series, edited by Edward C. Moore and Richard S. Robin, The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1964 and to his "Second Supplement," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society II, X (Spring 1966), pp. 51-53. Burks's bibliography is divided into three sections: General, Items from The Nation, and Miscellaneous. The first two sections are arranged primarily in chronological order; the third section is arranged alphabetically. Following the method Burks has adopted, references and cross references to bibliographical items are as follows: First the section is given, "G" for the General Section, "N" for The Nation Section, and "M" for the Miscellaneous Section. Next come the year and the number of the title under that year for sections "G" and "N"; only the item number for section "M." Thus "G-1883-4" refers to the fourth title under the date 1883 in the General section; "N-1901-3" refers to the third title under the date 1901 in The Nation section; and M-5 refers to the fifth item or name in the Miscellaneous section. Items preceded by ''sup(1)'' refer to Fisch's first supplement to Burks's bibliography; those preceded by "sup(2)" refer to Fisch's second supplement.

Mathematics


THE SIMPLEST MATHEMATICS

1. On the Simplest Possible Branch of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-9, 13, 17-33.
Brief discussion of paradisaical logic, i.e., system of logic in which only one value is supposed, provided another value (or other values) is not positively denied. The simplest kind of mathematics referred to, however, is a two-valued system of which Boole's algebra of logic is regarded as a special case. Inadequacies of Boolean algebra and some merits of secundal notation. Rules and examples for common mathematical operations in CSP's dyadic system.

2. On the Simplest Branch of Mathematics (SM)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-2; 1-5, incomplete, with an alternative p. 5.
The pure mathematics of existential graphs, alpha and beta parts, with definitions and permissions of transformation. See MS. 512 for more of MS. 2.

3. On Dyadics: the Simplest Possible Mathematics (D)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. s-2, incomplete.
Intended as the first of a series of four memoirs, with plans for further memoirs on the application of mathematical theory to deductive logic. The doctrine of multitude and a working definition of "continuity." See MS. 511.

4. Sketch of Dichotomic Mathematics (DM)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-52 (p. 25 missing), with 11 pp. of variants.
Nominal and real definitions; definition of terms, e.g., "postulate," "axiom," "corrollary," "theorem," which are employed in mathematical or geometrical demonstration; canon of demonstration. Long digression which begins with recognition of seven schools of philosophy each determined by the emphasis placed upon one or more of the following concepts: form, matter, and entelechy. The relationship of these schools to the realist-nominalist controversy, with special attention given to the Aristotelian position. The nature of signs: sign and related notions, especially form, law, habit and entelechy; sign as having its being in the power, not act, of determining matter; sign as entelechy.

5. Dichotomic Mathematics (DM)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-4, 1-3, 2-9, 6-11, 6-8, 10, 16-7, 45-46, with 22 pp. belonging to other drafts.
Similar in content to MS. 4, but without any of the digressions.

6. [Dyadic Value System]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The simplest of value systems serves as the foundation for mathematics and, indeed, for all reasoning, because the purpose of reasoning is to establish the truth or falsity of our beliefs, and the relationship between truth and falsity is precisely that of a dyadic value system.

7. On the Foundations of Mathematics (Foundations)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-16, with 3 rejected pages; 17-19 of another draft. Mathematics as dealing essentially with signs. The MSS. below (Nos. 8-11) are drafts of this one, and all are concerned with the nature of signs.

8. On the Foundations of Mathematics (Foundations)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-4, 3-4; 4-8 of another draft.

9. [Foundations of Mathematics]
A. MS., n.p. [c.1903?], pp. 1-5, with rejected pages. Vagueness, generality, and singularity.

10. [Foundations of Mathematics]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-2.

11. [Foundations of Mathematics]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-2, incomplete.

12. Notes Preparatory to a Criticism of Bertrand Russell's Principles of Mathematics (B. Russell)
A. MS., n.p., February 5, 1912, pp. 1-14.
The comments on Russell's work are as follows: ". . . true in the main" and "throughout, however, he betrays insufficient reflection on the fundamental conceptions of the subject," with the "primary difficulty . . . his not having begun with a thorough examination of the elements; . . . the ultimate analytic of thought." The major part of the manuscript concerns CSP's own analytic of thought (theory of signs).

13. On the Logic of Quantity (L of Q)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-13; 7-12, with an alternative p. 8 of another draft.
The principal questions raised are these: Why mathematics always deals with a system of quantity, what the different systems of quantity are and how they are characterized, and what the logical nature of infinity is. The relationship of logic and metaphysics to the three categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness. Singular, dual, and plural fasts. Chaldean metaphysics; chaos to determinacy; the evolutionary process. Postulates of mathematical logic (pp. 7-12).

14. On Quantity, with special reference to Collectional and Mathematical Infinity (Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-34.
The nature of mathematics, pure and applied. In general, mathematics is concerned with the substance of hypotheses, drawing necessary conclusions from them; pure mathematics is concerned only with those hypotheses which contain nothing not relevant to the forms of deduction. The nature of quan-tity (real, rational, and imaginary). System of quaternions as an enlargement of the system of imaginary quantity. Possible grades of multitude. Spatial and temporal continuity. Common sense notions of continua, especially with regard to the flow of time. "Continuum" defined as "a whole composed of parts, with the parts of the whole comprising a series, such that, taking any multitude whatever, a collection of those parts can be discovered the multitude of which is greater than the given multitude." Lastly, reasons are given for thinking that continuity exists beyond the evidence afforded by our natural beliefs in the continuity of space and time.

15. On Quantity, with special reference to Collectional and Mathematical Infinity (Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-29, incomplete.
Same questions raised as in MS. 14. "Mathematics" defined, with extended comments on the divisions of the sciences.

16. On the Logic of Quantity, and especially of Infinity (Logic of Quantity)
A. MS, n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1, 5-9, 7-18, 18-20.
Several definitions of "mathematics," including Aristotle's and CSP's. Mathematical proof and probable reasoning; the system and scale of quantity; the importance of quantity for mathematics. But to grasp the nature of mathematics is to grasp the three elements, which, with regard to consciousness, are feeling, consciousness of opposition, and consciousness of the clustering of ideas into sets. Recognition of the three elements in the three kinds of signs logicians employ. An analysis of the syllogism.

17. On the Logic of Quantity (Logic of Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-9; 7-10 of another draft.
This manuscript should be compared with MS. 16, to which it bears a special similarity. See also MS. 250 where CSP defines "mathematics" as "the tracing out of the consequences of an hypothesis." Five definitions of "mathematics." Benjamin Peirce’s definition found acceptable with modification. "Science" defined in terms of the activity of scientists, not in terms of its content or "truths." Probable inference and certain features of mathematical proof (pp. 7-10).

18. (Logic of Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 3-4.
Defense of a modified version of Benjamin Peirce’s definition of "mathematics." Cf. MS. 78.

19. Logic of Quantity (Logic of Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-12.
Several theorems demonstrated, e.g., that every relation included under a preference is itself a preference. Solution is offered to the following problem: Required that property which a collection must have to prevent it from proceeding from any collection of which it forms a part.

20. Logic of Quantity (Logic of Quantity)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5; 1-4, 3-5; plus a single-page table of contents ("Contents") and 3 rejected pages.
Definitions, corollaries, theorems, and problems. The theorems and problems differ from those in MS. 19.

21. Memoire sur la Logique de la Quantite. Deuxieme Partie.
A. MS., n.p., n.d.. pp. 1-16, with 5 rejected pages.
The application of the logic of relations to quantity.

22. Systems of Quantity
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Definitions of "relation," "relationship," "ring-relationship," and "quantity." Systems of logical, collectional, and total quantity distinguished.

23. [Logic of Number]
TS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-7.
A draft of G-1881-7 (for annotated reprint of, see MS. 38). Unlimited and limited discrete simple quantity.

24. The Theory of Multitude (Multitude)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903], pp. 1-3; 3-4 of another draft.
"Multitude" defined in terms of collection, followed by a pragmatistic definition of "collection."

25. Multitude and Number (Multitude)
A. MS., G-1897-1, pp. 1-82, with rejected or alternative pages running brokenly from p. 7 to p. 71.
Most of manuscript was published (4.170-226, except 187n1) but omitted were several illustrations (pp. 21-24; 34) and several proofs of theorems, among which are the following: That the collection of possible sets of units which can be taken from discrete collections is always greater than the collection of units (pp. 12-13), that the sum of an enumerable collection of enumerable multitudes is an enumerable multitude (pp. 29-32), and that there is a vast collection of indefinitely divident relations between the units of any denumerable collection (pp. 40-54).

26. On Multitude (On Multitude)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1897], pp. 1-24, with 24 pp. of rejects and/or alternatives.
An inquiry into what grades of multitude of collections are mathematically possible. This is a logical inquiry because both a strict logica utens and the principles of logica docens are required. Collection is explained but not precisely defined. Provided are three axioms relating to collections and several theorems. The inquiry concludes with a discussion of the general method of drawing conclusions by means of the above system.

27. Considerations concerning the Doctrine of Multitude
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905-07?], pp. 1-5; 23, 24, 27, 29, 30.
The nature of definition; "collection" defined; first- and second-intentional collection.

28. [On Multitudes]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1897?], pp. 23-48.
Abnumeral collection; first, second, and third denumeral multitude; princi, secundo, and tertio post-numeral multitude. Continuity and the doctrine of limits.

29. [On Multitudes]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
Innumerable and inenumerable multitude. Generality and infinity.

30. Note on the Doctrine of Multitude
A. MS., n.p., [November 1903], pp. 1-6; 1-2.
Doctrine of multitude is developed in terms of dog-names and boy-names. See CSP - Josiah Royce correspondence, 11/13/03, and the CSP-E. H. Moore correspondence, 12/16/03.

31. On the theory of Collections and Multitude
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905-07?], 2 pp.; plus 1 p. (p. 2) ("Note on Collections").

32. [On Collections]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, incomplete.
"Collection" defined; collection and quota distinguished.

33. [On Collections and Multitudes]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 4-8.

34. [Collections and the Fermatian Inference]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 26 pp. of discontinuous fragments (nn. except for 67).

35. [Fermatian Inference]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

36. [Fragments on Collections]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 14 pp.

37. On the Number of Forms of Sets
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3.
Explanation of form and formality in terms of plurality and diversity of sets. Table of formalities.

38. On the Logic of Number Reprints, G-1881-7.
One of the two reprints is annotated. Undated revisions in the form of marginal notes.

39. Logic of Number
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 18 pp.
Fundamental premises concerning number.

40. Axioms of Number
A. MS., n.p., [C.1881?], 4 pp.
Fifteen axioms (or assumptions) of arithmetic which provide a definition of "positive, discrete number" and from which, CSP thought, every proposition of the theory of numbers may be deduced by formal logic. Definitions of "addition" and "multiplication."

41. The Axioms of Number
TS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

42. [Cardinal and Ordinal Number]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.

43. [Cardinal Number]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 36-38.
Mathematical calculations on the versos of these pages.

44. First Definition of Ordinals (Topics)
A. MS., G-c.1905-3 [G-1904-3], pp. 26-49, with 10 pp. of rejects and/or alternatives.
Published, in part, as 4.331-340. Omitted: an attempt to define formally a secundal system of enumeration (pp. 38-39) and a second example (pp. 46-49).

*45, [Second Definition of Ordinals]
A. MS., n.p., [1904], pp. 4-6; 19-22; and 1 p. (the number of which is missing).
Parenthetically: "As for the whole existing race of philosophers, say John Dewey, to mention a relatively superior man whom you see, why they are the sort of trash who are puzzled by Achilles and the Tortoise! Think of trying to drive any exact thought through such skulls! Royce is the only philosopher I know of real power of thought now living."

46. [Ordinals]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 6-7.
Second definition of "ordinals," and first and second ordinal definition of "addition." Also multitudinal definition of "addition."

47. Proof of the Fundamental Proposition of Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., [1890?], pp. 1-4.
The proposition to be proved: ". . . that the order of sequence in which the things of any collection are counted makes no difference is [in] the result, provided there can be any order of counting in which the count can be completed. "

48. Numeration (Num)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-20, with 44 pp., some of which belong to different drafts but many of which are rejected pages.
Definitions of "number" and "series." The distinction between precise and definite; vague and indefinite. Abstraction, or ens rationis. In what sense can it be said that entia rationis are real? These pages were probably intended for an arithmetic.

49. An Illustration of Dynamics (Illustration)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901-02?], pp. 1-20, with 3 pp. of variants.
Setting out from two problems of dynamics both of which require for their solution the method of infinitesimals, CSP attempts an explanation of the method of infinitesimals, which requires, in turn, an explanation of collections and multiplicity. In addition, there is a discussion of the different modes of being, followed by a discussion of the distinction between reality and existence (for the purpose of showing that although nothing unreal can exist, something may be non-existent without being unreal).

50. (Attraction)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901-02?], pp. 1-12, with a rejected p. 10.
Contents are similar to those of previous manuscript, but without the discussions of existence and reality and of collections.

NUMERICAL NOTATION AND ANALYSIS

51. On the Ways of Thinking of Mathematics (W of T)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901-02?], pp. 1-4, with a rejected p. 3.
On the decimal and secundal systems of enumeration.

52. Notes on Numerical Notation
A. MS., n.p., [c.1910?], pp. 1-10, plus a rejected p. 2.
The notion of "elegance" in mathematics. The secundal system.

53. Secundal Computation
A. MS., n.p., [c.1912?], pp. 1-6, with 2 other attempts to write p. 2.
The notion of "elegance" in mathematics. The secundal system. Modes of reality.

54. Secundal Computation, Rules
A. MS., n.p., [early 1912], 8 pp., with 3 rejected pages; plus 1 folded sheet ("rules for addition and subtraction").
Notational explanation and accompanying statement of the rules for multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction. The extraction of square roots.

55. Computations for a Table of Secundal Antilogarithms
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-4.

56. Calculation of I.V.I. and Secundal Expression
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2; plus a folded sheet ("Calc. of Table of Secundal Logarithms").

57. Essay on Secundal Augrim (SA)
A. MS., n.p., [c. February 1905?], pp. 1-9.
Dedicated to James Mills Peirce and concerned with the same material as MS. 54.

58. Secundal Augrim
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Calculation of fundamental antilogs by additive method. Calculation of (10)01.

59. Secundal Augrim. Calculation of 10-01 by additive method continued
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

60. Secundal Augrim. Sheet 1
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

61. Secundal Numerical Notation (Secundals)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-12, with variant pages 7 and 9.
The four distinguishing characteristics of the system of secundals. CSP's version of the secundal system, with its several rules and examples of their application.

62. [Notes on Secundal Numeration]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905?], 1 p., with 64 pp. of secundal calculations.

63. [Secundal Notation Employed in Finding Factors]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 11 pp.

64. Notes for my treatise on Arithmetic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Mostly on secundals. Versos contain calculations pertinent to pendulum experiment, and two of these pages are dated Paris 1876.

65. The Binary Numerical Notation
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2; 1-2 ("The Binary System of Numerical Notation").

66. Mathematics as it is to be treated in my Logic treated as Semiotics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892-94?], pp. 1-5.
Binary system of notation.

67. Sextal Numeration
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Transformation of an integer from decimal or sextal to secundal expression and back again to the decimal expression. Synthemes.

68. Note on a Series of Numbers (Series)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903?], pp. 1-12, with variants (pp. 7, 8-12).
The series investigated is that whose first two dozen members are 2 S 3 S 3 S 4 S 5 S 5 S 4 S 5 S 7 S 8 S 7 S 7 S 8 S 7 S 5 S 6 S 9 S 11 S 10 S 11 S 13 S 12 S 9 S 9 S

69. Numerical Equations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet (2 pp.).
Method of getting all the roots when their moduli are all different.

70. Analysis of some Demonstrations concerning definite Positive Integers (N)
A. MS., G-1905-6, pp. 1-20, with 50 pp. of variants and notes.
See notes for an explanation of existential graphs. The versos of some pages contain notes for dictionary. In addition there is a draft of a letter in reply to an advertisement appearing in the New York Herald.

71. Of the Unordered Combinations of Six Things (6 Things)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1899], pp. 1-8.
The symmetrics of combinations of six things.

72. On the Combinations of Six Things
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

73. A Problem of Trees
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. (incomplete or unfinished).
The problem for which a solution is offered is to find how many distinct forms there are for a row of a given number of letters (separated into two parts by a punctuation mark, and each part not consisting of a single letter into two parts by a subordinate punctuation mark, and so on until all letters are separated).

*74. On the Number of Dichotomous Divisions: a problem in permutations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-10 (p. 7 missing); plus 17 pp. of another draft.
In the calculus of logic, a proposition is separated by its copula into two parts. The two parts may again be separated in a like manner, and so on indefinitely. One may inquire how many such propositional forms with a given number of copulas there are. Similar problem in algebra.

ALGEBRA

75. Notes on Associative Multiple Algebra
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 23 pp.
"The main proposition of this note was presented to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, May 11, 1875; and is published in the Proceedings of the Academy on p. 392." It is clear that this manuscript and the following two (76 and 77) belong together. See G-1875-2 and 3.150-151.

76. II. On the Relative Forms of the Algebras
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7.
A draft of G-1881-10 (Addendum 2).

77. III. On the Algebras in which division is unambiguous
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 8-14.
A draft of G-1881-10 (Addendum 3).

78. Notes on B. Peirce’s Linear Associative Algebra (LAA)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
A defense of Benjamin Peirce’s definition of "mathematics": Six possible objections noted and countered. Cf. G-1881-10 and MS. 18.

79. Nilpotent Algebras
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Double and triple algebras.

80. Nilpotent Algebras
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

81. Notes on the Fundamentals of Algebra
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Copula. Ligations, both simple and branching.

82. On the Application of Logical Analysis to Multiple Algebra
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1, 3-4.
See G-1875-2.

83. Index to Jordan's "Substitutions"
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.

84. [Algebraical Problems]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Drafts of corresponding pages of MS. 165.

85. An Algebraical Excursus
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2.

86. On the Quadratic Equation (QE)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
On the real, equal, or imaginary roots of quadratic equations.

87. Rough Sketch of Suggested Prolegomena to your [i.e., James Mills Peirce’s] First Course in Quaternions
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905?], pp. 1-20, 16-19, 17-26, and 20 pp. of variants.
The mathematician's threefold task involves substituting hypotheses for less definite descriptions of real or imaginary states of affairs, then developing a point of view for making those hypotheses as comprehensible as possible, and finally employing that point of view for the purpose of solving problems. Mathematical theory is the discovery of methods of treating a broad class of problems from one general point of view. Quaternions as a particular theory of tridimensional space. Analysis of spatial and temporal relations. Listing Numbers.

88. Quaternions Applied to Probabilities
A. MS., n.p., [1860's, early 1870?] 1 folded sheet (4 pp.).

89. Quaternions Theory of Functions
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.

90. [Quaternions]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1876], 2 pp.
Quaternion algebra. Hamilton's and Benjamin Peirce’s forms interpreted geometrically.

CALCULUS OF FINITE DIFFERENCES

91. A Treatise on the Calculus of Differences (Calc. Diff.)
A. MS., n.p., [1903-04?], pp. 1-25, with twice as many pages from other drafts.
For "calculus of differences" CSP preferred "calculus of successions." He planned to divide treatise into four parts, but the manuscript only gets into the first part which, treating the subject generally without regard to the na-ture of known quantities, is occupied mainly with equations of differences. The distinction between logical and mathematical functions. Features of mathematical functionality. Definitions of "value," "universe of values." "quantity." Notational rules.

92. Note on the Notation of the Calculus of Finite Differences (NFD)
A. MS., n.p., [1903-04?], pp. 1-4.
The calculus of finite differences and the differential calculus compared, especially with respect to the notion of function.

93. Calculus of Finite Differences
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, with 2 pp. (of two other starts); 1 p. ("The Logic of Finite Differences"); 3 pp. ("Equations of Finite Differences"); a notebook ("Promiscuous Notes").
The notebook from p. 17 onward is devoted to Boole's Finite Differences and related topics (Tagalog is the major subject of the first part of notebook).

BRANCHES AND FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRY

94. New Elements of Geometry by Benjamin Peirce, rewritten by his sons, James Mills Peirce and Charles Sanders Peirce.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6, 1-4 ("Preface"), 2 pp. ("Nota Bene"), pp. 1-398, (pp. 7, 31-33, 35, 69-70, 74-76, 78, 92-94, 166-168, 175, 182-183, 235 missing), with pp. xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, and pp. 37-150 from Benjamin Peirce’s Plane and Solid Geometry mounted and ready for revision.
Rewritten are books II-V concerned with the fundamental properties of space, topology, graphics, metrics.

95. [The Branches of Geometry; Ordinals]
A. MS., notebook, G-1904-3 and sup(1) G-c.1905-3, pp. 1-34.
An address delivered to the National Academy of Sciences. There is no indication of publication under G-1904-3, but this is G-c.1905-3 which is a mistake. see sup(1) G-c.1905-3.

*96. [The Branches of Geometry; Existential Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1904-05?], 11 pp.

97. [The Branches of Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 9-16, with 5 pp. of variants.

98. The Axioms of Geometry
A. MS., n.p., [c.1870-71?], 2 pp., with 3 pp. of other starts.

99. The Axioms of Geometry. Attempt at enumerating them
A. MS., n.p., [c.1875-76], l p.

100. First Attempt at a Geometry Logically Correct
A. MS., notebook, n.p., September 21, 1874.

101. [Six Fundamental Properties of Space]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
CSP's intention is to explain imaginaries in a new way, bringing them into the orbit of synthetic geometry by means of the principle of continuity.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

102. Promptuarium of Analytic Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp. and 4 pp. of different drafts.

103. Syllabus of Plane Analytic Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

104. On Real Curves
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, with variant p. 4.

105. On Real Curves. First Paper
A. MS., n.p., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.

*106. Four Systems of Coordinates
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 16 pp.

EUCLIDEAN AND NON EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

107. Synopsis of Euclid
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

108. [Euclid's Elements; Properties of the Number 2; the Meaning of "Rational"]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.

109. Pythagorean Triangles (Pyth. Tri)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901?], pp. 1-4.

110. Note on Pythagorean Triangles
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

111. Formulae for Plane Triangles
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 sheet.

112. Notes on Klein Icosahedron
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 PP.

*113. Icosahedron (Icosahedron)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 16 pp.

114. On Hyperbolic Geometry (Hyp. Geom)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901?], pp. 1-6, 16-20, with rejected pages.
Formulae required for the projection of the hyperbolic plane upon the Euclidean. Definitions of "individual," "independence of individuals," and "collection." Fundamental theorem of multitude. (Cantor's demonstration of this theorem is thought to be fallacious.)

115. Newton's Enumeration of Cubic Curves
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.
Hyperbolic geometry.

116. Brocardian Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

117. The Non-Euclidean Geometry made Easy
A. MS., G-undated-7, pp. 1-8.
Published, in part, as 8.97-99. Unpublished (pp. 3-8). Denial of either the first or second of the two "natural propositions," noted in that part of manuscript which was published, leads to a non-Euclidean geometry. Both of the corresponding kinds of non-Euclidean geometry are intelligible, and a consideration of plane geometry will suffice to show this.

118. Reflections on Non-Euclidean Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.

119. Non-Euclidean Geometry
A. MS., n.p., [c.1883 or later], 1 p. and 1 p. ("Notes on Non-Euclidean Geometry") .
The purpose of this memoir is to find some way of treating geometry metrically by introducing the absolute synthetically. The attempt is restricted to plane non-Euclidean geometry: "Solid non-Euclidean geometry is a trifle too hard for me."

120. The Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry. Preface
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp., plus 3 pp. which may be part of the same draft.

121. [On Non-Euclidean Geometry]
A. MS., G-undated-6, pp. 2-11; plus 4 pp. of an earlier draft.
Probably manuscript of an address to the New York Mathematical Society, November 24, 1894. Published, in part, as 8.93 n2. Was Euclid a non-Euclidean geometer? Probably! Properties of space. Evidence for thinking there is an absolute which is a real quadric surface. Newton's argument that space is an entity and its bearing on non-Euclidean Geometry. On back of p. 11: "Professor Fiske" [i.e., Thomas S. Fiske].

122. Non-Euclidean Geometry. Sketch of a Synthetic Treatment
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 32 pp. (several attempts with different titles).

123. Lobachevski's Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

124. Formulae
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Notes on non-Euclidean geometry, existential graphs, and Laurent's probabilities. Solution of quadratic equation. The "formulae" of the title refers to trigonometrical formulae and formulae of analytic geometry.

PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY

125. Geometry. Book 1. Projective Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
Definitions: Geometry, Body, Surface, Line, Point.

126. A Geometrico-Logical Discussion
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-10, with 28 pp. of other drafts.
Four-ray problem (How many rays cut four given rays?) as offering best apercus into nature of projective geometry. The impossibility of exact ideas, even in mathematics. Idea of a person; idea of a species of animal. Reality and entia rationis. Brief note on verso of one of the pages is dated September 16, 1906, and reads as follows: "11 1/4 P.M. Fell asleep standing and dreamed something about a tablet in a church In memory of my mother."

127. [Fragments on Projective Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 61 pp.

128. [Mathematical Notion of Projection]
Amanuensis, with corrections in CSP's hand, n.p., n.d., pp. 11-12.

METRICAL GEOMETRY

129. Metrical Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-39, with variant pages, and 155 pp. of other drafts.
Drafts for MS. 94 or 165. Foundations of linear and angular measurement. Signate, imaginary and quaternional measurement. Concept of a metron. Definitions, theorems, and demonstrations.

130. Metrical Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 27 pp.
Drafts for MS. 94 or 165. On the nature of spatial measurement.

131. [Metrical Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp.
Drafts for MS. 94 or 165. On propositions holding true for all kinds of systems of measurement.

132. Plan of Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 28 pp.

133. [Metrical Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1, 14-l5, 17-19
Much of the content, however, is projective geometry which is thought of as requisite for metrics.

134. [Metrical Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 27-39, plus 4 pp. of variants.
Drafts for MS. 94 or 165.

135. [Metrical Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 56-62, plus a variant p. 58.
Drafts for MS. 94 or 165.

136. [Metrical Geometry]
A. MS., G-undated-12 (Space), 1 p.

TOPICAL GEOMETRY

137. Topical Geometry (Topics)
A. MS., n.p., [1904], pp. 1-29, plus a confusion of partial drafts with pages running as high as p. 40, but with no continuous or final draft.
It is not evident that the title page goes with rest of the manuscript, which was written for Popular Science Monthly. The branches of geometry and their mutual relations. The branches of topics. Topics presupposes time, and time presupposes the doctrine of multitude. The topical properties of time; the hypothetically defined time of topics a true continuum; true continuity opposed to the pseudo-continuity (of the calculus). Instances of time, with the multitude of instances defined with the aid of the secundal system of enumeration. Points as possibilities, not actualized until something occurs to mark them. The dividing point between green and white is both green and white. Law of contradiction does not apply to potentialities. Census Theorem, Census Number, and Listing Numbers. On general words (signs).

138. Analysis of Time
A. MS., notebook, n.p., begun c.1904-05 with two entries dated August 13, 1908.
Four given rays may be crossed by how many rays? The analysis of the Four-ray problem requires a consideration of continuity which in its primitive, i.e., simple, sense has the form of time. Time as a determination of actuality (later see annotation CSP dissents). Definition of terms, e.g., instant, gradations. "I will not take up more of this book with the subject of discrete quantity But I refer to a similar book labelled 'All Pure Quantity merely ordinal' [MS. 224] for more about it."

139. On synectics, otherwise called Topology or Topic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp., incomplete.
Synectics as the science of spatial connections; pure synectics as the science of the connection of the parts of true continua.

140. A Treatise on General Topics (General Topics)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4, plus 1 p., dated December 26, 1913, on what it means to say that a line is continuous.

141. On Topical Geometry, in General (T)
A. MS., G-undated-12, pp. 1-14, 4-8, 4-7, 5-7, 5, 9, 13.
Published, in part, as 7.524-538, except 534n4 and 535n6. Omitted from publication is a discussion of the Kainopythagorean Categories centering in the view that there are but three and that there can be no element in experience not included in the three.

142. Notes on Topical Geometry
A. MS., G-undated-16 [c.1899-1900?], 6 pp., plus 2 pp. each of two other drafts having the same title as above.
Published, in part, as 8.368n23. Omitted from publication are definitions of "thing" and "collection," and a discussion of signs, especially icon, index, and symbol.

143. Topic (Topic)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
Point-figures and line-figures.

144. On General Topic (Topic)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, incomplete.
General and special topic distinguished. Properties of a continuum.

*145. An Attempt to state systematically the Doctrine of the Census in Geometrical Topics or Topical Geometry, more commonly called "Topologie" in German books; Being A Mathematical-Logical Recreation of C. S. Peirce following the lead of J. B. Listing's paper in the "G^ttinger Abhandlungen"
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp.

146. On Space-Logic
A. MS., n.p., November 13, 1895, pp. 1-2 (with a second p. 2), incomplete.
Notation. Topical singularity of a line.

147. On Space-Logic
A. MS., n.p., November 14, 1895, 1 p.
Notation only.

148. Topics of Surfaces
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

149. Ch. 2. Topical Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Definitions of "space," "place," "point," "particle," "line," "filament," "surface," "film," "solid," "body."

150. [Topical Geometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 45 pp.
Draft of MS. 94 or 165. Also material on graphics (projective geometry).

151. Topics. Chapter I. Singular Systems
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Firstness, or qualities, are positive albeit vague determinations. Vagueness and generality discriminated.

152. Section 4. Of Topical Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 6-12; 7-8.
Kinds of multitude: numerable, innumerable, enumerable, inenumerable.

153. On the Problem of Coloring a Map (4 Colors)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-17, plus variants.

154. On the Problem of Map-Coloring and on Geometrical Topics, in General (MC, PMC, Map)
A. MS., n.p., [1899-1900], pp. 1-10, plus variants and many other attempts (82 pp. in all), none going beyond p. 10.
The problem of map-coloring is stated as follows: "To determine demonstratively the smallest number of colors that will suffice so as to color any map whatever which can be drawn on a given surface, that no two confine regions (that is, two regions having a common boundary-line) shall have the same color." See CSP W. E. Story correspondence, 12/29/00.

155. Studies in map Coloring as Starting-point for Advance into Geomet-rical Topics
A. MS., notebook, n.p., [c.1897-1900?].
The first part of the notebook, the date of which is c.1870, deals with physical constants.

156. Map Coloring Vol. IV
A. MS., small notebook, n.p., n.d., plus another notebook ("Map Coloring Vol. V"), n.p., n.d.
Study of the Census Number.

157. [Link Coloring]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1897-1900?], 16 pp.
In how many ways, with c colors, can a simple chain of 1 links be colored, no two adjacent links being colored alike? In how may ways, with c + l colors, can a simple chain of I + l links be colored so that all adjacent links are colored differently?

158. [Fragments on Map-Coloring]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 32 pp. and 3 pp.

159. Notes on Listing
A. MS., n.p., [1897?], pp. 1-7.

160. A Study of Listing Numbers (Listing Numbers)
A. MS., n.p., February 3, 1897, pp. 1-5, plus 1 p. which apparently belongs here.

161. [Listing Numbers; The Census-Number; The Census Theorem]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

162. [Fragments on Listing Numbers and the Census-Number]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.

163. [Topology; Real Curves; Astronomy; Archeology; Assorted Mathematical Notes]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1895 (p. 45 is dated July 1895).

MATHEMATICAL TEXTBOOKS

164. New Elements of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], title page and 2 pp. ("Preface").
An introduction to a book which is designed to give the educated man all the mathematics he needs to know and which could serve as preparation for the study of higher mathematics. Brief account of the recent history of mathematics, followed by an examination of the branches of geometry.

165. Elements of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-357 (pp. 61, 77, 93, 213, 259-273, 276-294 missing), with 23 pp. of a well-detailed "Table of Contents" and "Subject Index" and 18 pp. of another draft of Article 2, Scholium 2, of Chapter I.
Chapter I "Introduction" (pp. 1-39): Elementary account of the nature of mathematics; analysis of the game of tit-tat-too as an illustration of the process of deducing the consequences of hypotheses; definitions and the etymology of important terms. See MS. 1525 for possible early drafts of some of this material. Chapter II "Sequences" (pp. 40-76, with p. 61 missing): Sequences, both simple and complex. Chapter III "The Fundamental Operations in Algebra" (pp. 78-92, with pp. 77 and 93 missing): Fundamental operations in algebra; explicit and implicit functions; functions of several variables. Chapter IV "Factors" (pp. 94-106): Parts, divisors, and factors; prime factors; greatest common divisor of several numbers; multiples, dividends, and products; least common multiple; fundamental theorem of composition. Chapter V "Negative Numbers" (pp. 107 116): Definition and historical data. Chapter VI "Fractional Quantities" (pp. 117-130): Rational number explained; the system of rational numbers as including the values of all rational fractions except o/o. Chapter VII "Simple Equations" (pp. 131-173): Solution of linear equations; systems of simultaneous equations. Chapter VIII "Ratios and Proportions" (pp. 174-188): Ratios, proportions, anharmonic ratio. Chapter IX "Surds" (pp. 189-222, with p. 213 missing): Possibility and importance of surds; definition of "limit"; Achilles and the tortoise (p. 196); imaginary quantities; exercises and problems. Chapter X "Topical Geometry" (pp. 223-275, with pp. 259-273, 276-293 missing): Topical geometry explained; continuum; homo-geneity; tridimensionality of space; singularities; topical classes of surfaces; the topical census. Long footnote on the intelligibility of infinitesimals. Chapter XI "Perspective" (pp. 294-357): Graphics; homoloidal system of plates; dominant (optical) homoloids; projection; Desarques' Ten-Line theorem; the Nine-Ray theorem.

166. Elements of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 44-320, with many gaps and variant pages.
Another draft of MS. 165.

167. Practical Arithmetic

A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-29 (pp. 26-27 missing), plus 2 pp.
Maxims for attaining accuracy and speed in handling numbers. Counting and measuring. The decimal names of numbers. The arabic notation.

168. Practical Arithmetic
TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., 21 pp. of two drafts.

169. Factotal Augrim (A) (B)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-18 (A), 5-18 (A), plus variants; 1-4 (B).
Terminology: augrim, arithmetic, vulgar arithmetic, practical arithmetic, ciphering, and algorithm. Elementary and composite augrims. On number, including a long footnote on collections.

170. Rough List of Works Consulted for Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., [1890-91?], 3 pp.

171. CSP's Small Inventions in Arithmetic and Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
The arrangement of all the rational fractions, not negative, in the order of their values and without calculation.

172. Examples in Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.

173. A System of Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Rule for addition.

174. Rule for Division
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-28 (pp. 2, 13, 15-16, 23-26 missing), plus variants and several unnumbered pages.

175. Exercises in Arithmetic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

176. [Elementary Arithmetic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 15 pp.
Rule for addition. Counting by threes, fours, fives, etc.

177. The Practice of Vulgar Arithmetic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Addition, multiplication, squaring a number, solving algebraic equations, Rule of False.

178. C. S. Peirce’s Vulgar Arithmetic: Its Chief Features
A. MS., notebook, n.p., [c.1890].
Draft of a book, outlining its chief features. Shortcuts in the teaching of arithmetic.

179. Peirce’s Primary Arithmetic Upon the Psychological Method
A. MS., n.p-, [1893], 52 pp.
Teaching numeration. Addition. Multiplication.

180. Plan of the Primary Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3.
The contents of seventeen chapters are noted.

181. Primary Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 31 pp.
Six lessons concerned with counting.

182. Primary Arithmetic. Suggestions to Teachers
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp.
A teaching manual on counting.

183. Mugling Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2.

184. [On Counting]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

185. Chapter IV. Addition
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

186. Familiar Letters about the Art of Reasoning
A. MS., n.p., May 15, 1890, pp. 1-22, plus title page and 2 pp. (unnumbered).
In the form of a letter to Barbara (of the mnemonical verses). Card-playing as a pedagogical instrument, useful in teaching the art of reasoning.

187. [Assorted Notes for an Elementary Arithmetic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp. (not all in CSP's hand).

188. [Introduction to Practical Arithmetic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Discussion is somewhat advanced and may not be part of a primary or vulgar arithmetic.

189. Lydia's Peirce’s Primary Arithmetic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., [1904-05], with 65 pp. of drafts.
"Grandmother" Lydia teaches counting, making use of children's nonsense rhymes like "eeny-meeny-mony-meye," but pointing up the numerical limitations of gibberish.

190. [Notes on Square Roots, Long Division, Addition, Cyclic Numeration]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.

191. [Balance and Scales]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.
Part of a proposed book for children.

192. [On Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-15.
An elementary discussion possibly for a textbook.

193. Syllabus of the Elements of Trigonometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp., representing three different starts.

194. [Fragments on Trigonometry]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., over 100 pp.

195. Trigonometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, plus 13 pp.

196. Sketch of a Proposed Treatise on Trigonometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 20 pp.

197. Elements of Geometry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

198. [Geometry Exercises]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 14 pp.

MATHEMATICAL RECREATIONS

199. The Third Curiosity (MM/D)
A. MS., n.p., [1907], pp. 1-76, plus 53 rejected pages.
Numeration with a base other than 10. Sextal and secundal systems. The rules of arithmetic, e.g., rule of algebraic summation and the rule of "direct division."

200. The Fourth Curiosity (MM/E)
A. MS., G-1908-1e, pp. 1-186, plus 161 pp. (running brokenly to p. 186).
Omitted from publication in the Collected Papers: further discussion of the relationships of the Aristotelian pattern; definition of "pure mathematics"; numbers as entia rationis; first valid argument for pragmatism involves the denial of the Absolute. Kind, class, and collection. Signs and predication.

201. A Contribution to the Amazes of Mathematics (MM)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1908], 210 pp., most of which are numbered with the numbered pages running as high as p. 164 (many pages missing, however).
Rationale for two card "tricks" [The First (?) and Second Curiosities]. Abstract real (not imaginary) numbers viewed pragmatistically. Cantorian system. Cyclical system of numbers. The Fourth Curiosity. Secundal arithmetic. Reference to Elements of Mathematics (MS. 165), with bitter note on publishers of textbooks.

202. Some Amazements of Mathematics (Cu)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1908], pp. 1-53, plus 26 pp. of variants.
This paper begins with an analysis of the peculiarity of the number 142857. Lengthy discussion of infinitesimals. Fermat's theorem, Polynomial theorem, Rule of "direct division." Card "trick" (same as one of the two card "tricks" of MS. 201).

203. Addition (Add)
A. MS., n.p., May 24, 1908, pp. 1-5.
Alternate draft of 4.642. Does the collective system of irrational and rational quantity constitute a continuum or a pseudo-continuum? CSP says "pseudo-continuum" as against the opinions of both Cantor and Dedekind.

204. Supplement (A)
A. MS., G-1908-1b, pp. 1-17, incomplete, with variants.
The exact date of this manuscript is May 24, 1908. It was published, in part, as 7.535n6. Unpublished: Whether mathematicians generally, including Cantor and Dedekind, are correct in their views as to what constitutes a true continuum. The three universes of ideas, i.e., arbitrary possibilities, physical things, and minds. Reality and existence; perfect and imperfect continua.

205. Recreations in Reasoning (RR)
A. MS., G-c.1897-4, pp. 1-35, plus 22 pp. probably from another draft.
Published as 4.153-169, with the proofs of several theorems omitted.

206. Recreative Exercises in Reasoning (R)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
Solution of the following exercise: "Required to arrange all the rational fractions (whose denominators do not exceed a given number and whose numerators do not exceed a given number of times the denominator) in the order of their values, in a horizontal row with < or = interposed between each successive two to state their relation of value."

207. Recreations in Reasoning (R)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-24, 2-5 with one rejected page and 14 pp. of variants; plus 11 pp. of notes.
Three distinguishing marks of numerical multitude. The ordering of fractions and the simplest method for calculating circulating decimals.

208. Recreations of Reasoning (RR)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1897], pp. 1, 21, 32; and 1 p.

209. Knotty Points in the Doctrine of Chances
A. MS., n.p., [c.1899], pp. 1-16.
Problem in probabilities: mathematics of the roulette table. CSP concludes whimsically: "That in an even game, say an honest roulette without zeros, all the players might make it a rule to leave off only when they had netted a winning equal to a single bet, and were their fortunes or backing unlimited, every man of them would be sure of success, while the bank, though it would not win anything, would never lose!" Now "let U.S. lend to each citizen ..." and then allow the winnings to be taxed.

210. A Corner for Pythagoreans. Mathematical Recreations No. 1 by Pico di Sablonieri (pseudonym)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1895], pp. 1-11; plus 12 pp. and 5 pp. of other drafts.
A problem in probabilities. Content is similar to that of the preceding manuscript.

211. A Brief Preliminary and Hasty Syllabus of a book to be entitled Calculations of Chances
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 38 pp.; plus pp. 8, 11-18.

COMPUTATIONS AND FRAGMENTS

212. A Trade Secret (Trade Secret)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4, with a variant p. 1.
The computing of values of a function from an infinite series: a dodge generally known among professional computers.

213. Notes of a Computer
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, plus 1 p. ("A Device of Computation") and 1 p. ("A Computer's Device").

214. Note on o(inf)
TS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

215. Integer Negative Powers of 2
A. MS., n.p., "checked and found correct by CSP 1911, Oct. 8," 2 pp.

216. Practical Comments on Namur's Tables of Logarithms
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

217. Calc. of Nat. Log. 10
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 sheet.

218. A Short Table of Reciprocals
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 sheet.

219. Computation of the excess of 5/10 over 1
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

220. Calculation of the fractional part of 5/10
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

221. Hints toward the invention of a Scale-Table
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6; 1-3; and 9 pp. of fragments.
Table of antilogarithms and a logarithmic scale.

222. Dedekind's Dirichlet #23
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, plus 5 pp. of two other starts.
The object of this paper is to describe a notation which reveals clearly the elementary constitution and properties of the functions connected with the GCD algorithm.

223. Gibb's Papers. Vol. II. p. 30
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Probably a draft of G-1883-5d.

224. All Pure Quantity merely ordinal
A. MS., notebook, August 16, 1908.
Notes for a memoir whose purpose is "to prove that every system of signs of abstract quantities signifies nothing but that one sign denotes an object later in one or more sequences (or later in one and earlier in another, etc.) than an object denoted by another." A study of two systems: (a) additive scheme of rational values, (b) numerative scheme of positive fractions. Ens rationis and feeling (monadic experience contrasted with dyadic experience, or "reaction").

225. Memorandum of How to Do Things
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Various formulae of computation. Certain kinds of problems, e.g., drawing the best algebraic curve of a given order through any number of points, finding times of moon's rising and setting, etc., and their solutions.

226. Note to p. 378 of [Benjamin] Peirce’s Analytic Mechanics
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

227. Theorems of Numbers
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp., incomplete.

228. Notes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.
Distributions of the theorems of mathematics throughout the various branches of the discipline. In addition, the notes are concerned with the theory of equations, equal roots, symmetric functions, different kinds of ratios.

229. [Logic of Number] (Lefevre)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-7, 16, 18, 20-21.
Definition of "mathematics" as "the science of hypotheses."

230. [Analytic Geometry]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Includes, in addition to the material on analytic geometry, a personal expense account, covering several days, but with no indication of the year.

231. Studies of Laws of Frequency of Occurrence of Numbers
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
These studies are based on population figures for 1900.

232. Note on the Mouse Trap Problem
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

233. Gauss's Rule for Easter improved
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

234. [Arithmetical Calculations]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

235. [Fragment on Quantity]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 15-16.

236. [Fermat's Theorem]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Draft of a postscript to an unidentified letter.

237. Formulae for Repeated Differentiations (Repeated Differentiations)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2; plus 2 pp. (Dn).

238. An Apology for the Method of Infinitesimals (Apology)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-15.
An attempt at justifying a remark (see Century Dictionary s.v. limit) that the method of infinitesimals is more in harmony with advances in mathematics (1883) than the method of limits.

239. Infinitesimals
Corrected proofs, G-1900-1.

240. A Mathematical Suggestion
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet (4 pp.).

241. A Mathematical Discussion
A. MS., n.p., n.d., l folded sheet (4 pp.).

242. [Computation of Ordinates for Points on a Probability Curve]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

243. The Theta Function of Probabilities
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p., with 5 sheets of calculations.

* 244. [A Problem in Probabilities]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Solution of algebraic problems. Venn Diagrams. Calculation of the asymptotic axis of the larger atomic weights.

245. Illustrative Problem in Probabilities
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 16 pp.

246. Reflections on the Logic of Science
A. MS., n.p., January 1-7, 1889, pp. 2-22
Evidently for a book on the philosophy of physics. The relationship between mathematics and physical theory. The Rule of False. MSS. 247-249 are presumably continuations of this one.

247. Chapter II. The Doctrine of Chances
A. MS., n.p., January 8, 1889, pp. 23-29, plus another p. 27.

248. Chapter II. Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., January 9-17, 1889, pp. 23-29.

249. Ordinal Geometry
A. MS., n.p., January 18-19, 1889, 40 pp., representing several starts.

250. Notes for Chapter of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., November 24-25, 1901, pp. 1-4.

251. Topics of Mathematics
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

252. [On Mathematical Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 22 pp.
Mathematical reasoning illustrated by means of the game tit-tat-too. The advantage, in general, of studying mathematics.

253. Logical Analysis of Some Demonstrations in High Arithmetic (D)
A. MS., n.p., June 11, 1905, pp. 1-20, incomplete, with an alternate p. 20.
Reference is made to a paper published in The American Journal of Mathematics (G-1881-7). Demonstrations of Fermat's and Wilson's theorems.

254. Of the Nature of Measurement
A. MS., G-undated-4, pp. 1-26, plus 6 pp. rejected.
Published, in part, as 7.280-312. Omitted are the demonstration and scholium in connection with the theorem on hyperbolic motion (pp. 13-17) and the corollary of the definition occurring on p. 21 and published as 7.312 (pp. 22-26).

255. Of the Nature of Measurement
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8, plus variants.

256. Properties of Space
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 11 pp. (fragmentary).

257. [On the Properties of Space]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp. and 5 pp. of another draft.
The three classes of spatial properties: intrinsic, metrical, and optical.

258. [On the Properties of Mathematical Space]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Space is tri-dimensional and unlimited; its points are continuous; and it has the same properties everywhere, and in all directions.

259. Note on the Analytic Representation of Space as a Section of a Higher Dimensional Space
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

260. Note on the Utility of considering Space as a Section of a Space of more than 3 Dimensions
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

261. Notes on Geometry of Plane Curves without Imaginaries
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, plus 6 pp.

262. On the Real Qualitative Characters of Plane Curves
TS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp. of several drafts.

*263. Singularities of Pairs of Terminals
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

264. On the Real Singularities of Plane Curves
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.

265. Topical Singularities
A. M.S., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

266. [Worksheets on the Nine-Ray Theorem]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

267. [Points, Lines, and Surfaces]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

268. Euclid Easy. Chapter I. A Talk on Continuity
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
An imaginary conversation between Thomas J. Jeffers and Euclid Easy, preparatory to a full scale discussion of the logic of continuity.

269. Notes for Theorems
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Various topics are listed with reference both to standard works and other writings. Topology and the four-color problem.

270. Test-Example of Mathematical Reasoning
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
An inquiry which presupposes points, rays, planes, and a relation called "containing."

271. Pythagorean
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

272. Remarkable points of a triangle
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp., and 4 pp. ("Triangle").

273. [Homoloids]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
Discussion of the four-ray problem.

274. The Dodecanes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 26 pp,

275. On a Geometrical Notation
TS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp., with 2 pp. of TS. (corrected) on "Notation."

276. Miscellaneous Journal
A. MS., notebook, dated entries for February 9, 11, 14-15, 20, 25, 28, 1910.
Secundal arithmetic. Probability. Petersburg problem. Justification for asserting a proposition. Analysis of the predicate "positive." Also a draft of a letter apparently to Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont.

277. The Prescott Book
A. MS., n.p., begun May 1907 and continued June 8, 1907-September 13, 1910.
On singularities, Petersburg problem, Ten-Point theorem, continuity, existential graphs. An analysis of signs, notes on phaneroscopy, and an outline of a paper for the Hibbert Journal on "a little known 'Argument' for the Being of God."

*278. [Unidentified Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., over 1400 pp.

Pragmatism


THE BASIS OF PRAGMATISM

279. The Basis of Pragmaticism. Meditation the First (Med)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905], pp. 1-16, with variants.
Types of readers who will not profit from this critical examination of pragmaticism. The Harvard Lectures of 1903 presented the argument which finally convinced CSP of the truth of pragmaticism. The argument of 1903 restated. Discussion of the ethics of terminology contains some amusing satire. The comparative merits of English and German; English better adapted to logic than German. A great mistake to attempt to reform English by way of German expressions out of harmony with it.

280. The Basis of Pragmaticism (Basis)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905], pp. 1-48, plus fragments.
Of the different senses of "philosophy," preference is stated for that sense in which it is synonymous with cenoscopy, i.e., the study of common experience. The need for a technical nomenclature and terminology in the idioscopic sciences. The situation in philosophy is somewhat different. Philosophy needs to admit "into its language a body of words of vague significations with which to identify those vague ideas of ordinary life which it is its business to analyze." Logical analysis is not always adequate. Examples from the history of philosophy, especially Kant and Leibniz, of irresponsibility in logical analysis. Kant's use of "necessary" and "universal." Blunders in logical analysis inevitable until proper method (pragmaticism) is adopted. Specifically, blunders result from the failure of philosophers to understand and accept the logic of relations. Elementary discussion of existential graphs ("quite the luckiest find that has been gained in exact logic since Boole"). CSP reflects bitterly on treatment received from institutions and publishers.

281. The Basis of Pragmaticism (Basis)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905], pp. 1-9, plus pp. 4-6.
On the senses of "philosophy" and on terminology in general. The danger of taking words from the vernacular, e.g., "light" in physics. Earlier draft of MS. 280.

282. The Basis of Pragmaticism (BP)
A. MS., G-c.1905-7, pp. 1-9.
Published as 5.497-501 with insignificant deletions.

283. The Basis of Pragmaticism (Basis)
A. MS., G-1905-1d, pp. 1-162, with pp. 3-6 missing and with pp. 112-119 discarded (p. 120 continues p. 111), plus 210 pp. of alternative sections and single page fragments.
The following parts of this manuscript were published: p. 31 (section 8), pp 37-45 as 1.573-574; pp. 45-59 as 5.549-554; pp. 135-148 as 5.448n (footnote to Monist article "Issues of Pragmaticism"). Unpublished is the argument for the truth of pragmatism based upon the argument of the Harvard Lectures of 1903 which, CSP notes, were not published in his lifetime because of the failure of a "friend" to recommend them for printing. The meaning of "science." Heuretic, practical, and retrospective science distinguished. The meaning of "philosophy." Cenoscopic and synthetic philosophy. Methods of cenoscopic research. The idea of growth, as found in Aristotle and as applied to knowledge generally. The divisions of cenoscopy, with metaphysics as the third and last division and normative science as the mid-division. The deplorable condition of metaphysics: the necessity of logic and the normative sciences generally as propaedeutic to it. The hard dualism of normative science, its distinctness from practical science, and its relationship to psychology. Action, effort, and surprise: effort and surprise only experiences from which we can derive concept of action. Doctrine of Signs. Modes of indeterminacy; indefiniteness and generality; the quantity and quality of indeterminacy. The relationship of law and existence.

284. The Basis of Pragmaticism
A. MS., two notebooks, G-c.1905-5, pp. 1-48 (one notebook); 49-91 (second notebook) .
Selections from first notebook published as 1.294-299, 1.313, and 1.313n; selections from second notebook (pp. 65-69) were published as 1.350-352. Omissions from publication (First Notebook) include the disassociation of pragmaticism from some doctrines which have become associated with it; for example, the denial of the Absolute, the affirmation of a Finite God, making action (brute force) the sammum bonum. ". . . I am one of those who say 'We believe in God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible' where the invisible things, I take it, are Love, Beauty, Truth, the Principle of Contradiction, Time, etc. Clearly I can have but the vaguest analogical notion of the Maker of such things, and Pragmaticism, I am sure, does not require that all my beliefs should be definite." CSP thinks that Royce in The World and the Individual comes closer to exhibiting the meaning of pragmatism than any exposition of it given by a pragmatist other than himself. Another misrepresentation of pragmaticism is to assert that pragmatism depreciates science. The principal question for pragmaticism must be whether thought has any meaning or purport beyond the simple apprehension of the thought itself. Also omitted is a discussion of the four sects of logic: Leibnizian, Associationist, Aristotelian, and Kantian. The analogy between the indecomposable elements of thought and the atoms of the different elements. Logical terms and valencies. The indecomposable elements of the phaneron. Propositions and assertions. Omissions from publication (Second Notebook) include a discussion of the three modes of mental analysis (dissociation, precision, and discrimination). Application of these modes to primanity, secundanity, and tertianity, e.g., primanity can be prescinded though it cannot be dissociated from secundanity, but secundanity cannot be prescinded but only discriminated from primanity. Finally, the use of existential graphs to explain logical fallacy.

MONIST ARTICLES 1905-06

285. Analysis of "What Pragmatism is"
A. MS., n.p., [c.1910-11], 1 folded sheet.
An incomplete topical summary of the contents of the article entitled "What Pragmatism Is," the first of the three Monist articles of 1905-06. See G-1905-1a.

286. Analysis of the Issues of Pragmatism
A. MS., n.p., [c.1910-11], 2 folded sheets. An incomplete topical summary of the contents of the article entitled "Issues of Pragmatism," the second of the three Monist articles of 1905-06. See G-1905-1b.

287. Analysis of Prolegomena
A. MS., n.p., [c.1910-11], 2 folded sheets.
An incomplete topical summary of the contents of the article entitled "Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism," the third of the three Monist articles of 1905-06. See G-1905-1c.

288. Materials for Monist Article: The Consequences of Pragmaticism. Vols. I and II
A. MS., two notebooks ("Vol. I" and "Vol. II"), n.p., April 27, 1905 (the first date recorded).
The material collected in both volumes is for the second article of the 1905-06 Monist series. Volume I: Critical Common-sensism. Pragmatism is regarded as a more critical version of a philosophy of common sense. The indubitability of propositions with indubitability associated with vagueness. The nature of doubt: the relationship of doubt to feeling, habit, and belief. The relationship of Critical Common-sensism and the normative sciences, and the relationships among the normative sciences. Volume II: Generality and vagueness. Concept of God is vague; Being of God is indefinite. Criticism of Kant: "Kant is nothing but a somewhat confused pragmatist." Ethical and logical control compared. Pragmatism connected with real possibility, with pragmatism rendered intelligible by the assertion of real possibility. Pragmatism's relationship to the normative sciences. Existence and reality: Generals are real but nonexistent.

289. Consequences of Pragmaticism (CP)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1905], pp. 1-22, plus rejected pp. 1, 5.
This paper serves as a critical commentary on the Popular Science article of January 1878 (G-1877-5b). Applications of the pragmatic maxim to specific questions, e.g., are the so-called "Laws of the Universe" habits of the universe in some objective sense? Question of God's objectivity. God and Demiurge are distinguished. Brief consideration of what constitutes reality and characterizes propositions.

290. Issues of Pragmaticism (CP)
A. MS., G-1905-1b, pp. 1-26, 30-63 (with no break in text); 12-28, 20-21, 27-28, 45-59; plus 9 single page variants.
Published, in part, as 5.402n (pp. 33-37). Unpublished is the mention of an early anticipation of pragmaticism in a Journal of Speculative Philosophy article of 1868 (G-1868-2). In that article CSP accepts two positions which underlie pragmaticism: Critical Common-sensism and Scholastic realism. Critical Common-sensism differs from the Scottish notions of common sense. Two classes of indubitable propositions noted. Acritical inferences and reasoning. Logica docens and logica utens. CSP finds support of Critical Common-sensism in the writings of Avicenna. Several applications of pragmaticism to the meaning of matter and time and to the notion of action at a distance. Theory of signs, especially symbols.

291. Pragmatism, Prag [4] (P)
A . MS., G-c.1905-8, pp. 2-68.
Omitted from publication (5.502-537): the footnote on pp. 20-21, which is concerned with the meaning of "to precide" as "to render precise, that is, non-vague, non-indefinite." Discussion of the derivation of the verb.

292. Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism ()
A. MS., [c.1906], pp. 1-54 and pp. 29-54 of a partial draft, with 28 pp. of variants and 2 pp. ("Index to Prolegomena").
Less misleading, perhaps, to say that there are two drafts of pp. 29-54 and that it is not certain which should be counted as completing pp. 1-28. Pages 45-53 of one of these drafts were published as 1.288-292. See G-1905-1c. Not published is the first part of the manuscript which follows the third of the Monist articles very closely. Theory of signs. Relation among thought, thinking, and Signs. Application of the type-token distinction. Diagram of thought, with some conventions for diagramming. The meaning of a conditional proposition and the revision of the tychistic hypothesis. The "second" draft is similar to the first in respect to the conventions for the diagramming of thought. Restatement of chief purpose for constructing algebras of logic and existential graphs. Sketch of a classification of signs.

293. (PAP)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1906], pp. 1-56 (only the transition from 45-46 seems unnatural) and a sequence 10-18 marked "Keep for reference" by CSP, with 48 pp. of variants.
Anthropomorphism. The "operation of the mind" as an ens rationis. Genuine reasoning distinguished from reasoning which is not genuine. All necessary reasoning is diagrammatic: Diagram is an icon of a set of rationally related objects, a schema which entrains its consequences. The three modes of non-necessary reasoning: probable deduction, induction, and abduction. System of existential graphs: application of existential graphs to the phaneron; classification of the elements of the phaneron; valency; the precedence of form over matter in all natural classifications, with the distinction between form and matter applied to existential graphs. Kant's Gesetz der Affinito/oot. What is meant by saying that identity is a continuous relation. Diagram variously characterized as token, as general sign, as definite form of relation, as a sign of an order in plurality, i.e., of an ordered plurality or multitude (pp. 10-18).

294. Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmaticism (Pr)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1906], pp. 1-3, incomplete.
Stylistic problems. Should a writer be allowed to use the first person singular? Strategy for convincing the reader of the soundness of the writer's position.

295. ()
A. MS., n.p., [c.1906], fragments running brokenly from p. 8 to p. 103, with 3 pp. unnumbered.
Rejected pages for the Monist article of 1906 (G-1905-1c). Both marking and topics treated indicate close affinity with MS. 292. Various topics discussed: kinds of signs; type-token distinction; collections and classes; the substitution of "seme," "pheme," and "delome" for "term," "proposition," and "argument," and the reason for making the substitution; several conventions of the system of existential graphs.

296. The First Part of an Apology for Pragmaticism (A1)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907-08 or 18 months after "Prolegomena"], pp. 1-14; 14-32, with p. 25 missing (but with no break in the text); pp. 7-16 of another draft; plus 24 pp. of variants.
This manuscript was intended as the fourth article of the Monist series of 1905-06, with two more articles following: The fourth article was to begin the apology, the fifth to have contained the main argument, and the sixth to have provided the subsidiary arguments and illustrations. More specifically, a rhetorical defence of the principle of pragmatism in the Popular Science Monthly issues of November 1877 and January 1878; system of existential graphs; the nominalism of Ockham and J. S. Mill; objective and subjective generality; Scholastic realism; the three ways in which an idea can be mentally isolated from another (dissociation, precision, and discrimination). Among the variant pages are some interesting biographical data, especially CSP's reflections on his father's "remarkable aesthetical discrimination" and his boyhood impressions of visitors, Emerson included, to the family home in Mason Street, Cambridge.

297. Apology for Pragmatism (Apol)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-7, incomplete.
Draft of G-1905-1g. CSP notes that there are three arguments favoring pragmatism of which the first "sets out from the observation that every new concept comes to the mind in a judgment." Judgment and assertion.

298. Phaneroscopy ()
A. MS., G-1905-1h, pp. 1-36, plus 20 pp. of variants.
This article, intended for the January 1907 Monist, was to have followed the Monist article of October 1906. Published as follows: 4.534n1 (pp. 2-3); 4.6-11 (from pp- 5-16); 4.553n1 (pp. 18-19); 1.306-311 (pp. 26-36). Unpublished are CSP's thoughts on the relevance of existential graphs to the truth of pragmaticism; his view that existential graphs afford a moving picture of thought, and his reflections on telepathy, spiritualism, and clairvoyance. Vividness and intensity of feeling: CSP's disagreement with Hume.

*299. Phaneroscopy: Or, The Natural History of Concepts (Phy or Phaneroscopy)
A. MS., G-c.1905-4, pp. 1-37 incomplete, plus 31 pp. of variants.
Published as follows: 1.332-334 (pp. 12-18); 1.335-336 (pp. 33-37). Unpublished: definition and presuppositions of science; idioscopy and cenoscopy; mathematics and cenoscopy; the nature of experience and cognition; kinds of reasoning from experience; experience and shock (having an experience requires more than a shock).

300. The Bed-Rock Beneath Pragmaticism (Bed)
A. MS., G-1905-1e, pp. 1-65; 33-40; 38-41; 37-38; 40-43.7; plus 64 pp. of fragments running brokenly from p. 1 to p. 60.
This was to have been the fourth and ante-penultimate article of the Monist series. The following pages were published as indicated: 4.561n (pp. 31-39 1/2); 4.553n2 (pp. 37-38 of a rejected section). Omitted from publication are comments on the circumstances which led to writing the various articles of the Monist series. In this connection CSP notes, with some horror, the view attributed by the New York Times to William James that practical preference was the basis of pragmatism and considers what James probably meant to say, noting James's definition of "pragmatism" in Baldwin's Dictionary of Psychology and Philosophy. The truth of pragmatism and its scientific proof. CSP reveals that he "had passed through a doubt of pragmatism lasting very nearly twenty years." Discussion of the nature of doubt: the confounding of doubt with disbelief. System of existential graphs; comparison of existential graphs with chemical ones; existential and entitative graphs. Studies of modality: CSP's early views and subsequent modifications. Among the fragments one finds CSP's disagreement with Cantor on the matter of pseudo-continuity which for CSP raises a question of the ethics of terminology.

LECTURES ON PRAGMATISM

Eight Lectures delivered at Harvard from March 26 to May 17, 1903, the first seven under the auspices of the Department of Philosophy and the eighth under the auspices of the Department of Mathematics. Two of the notebooks included here are probably but not certainly part of the Harvard Lecture series.

301. Lecture I
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
Published in entirety: 5.14-40.

302. Lecture II
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903.
A liberal education in a hundred lessons: fifty lessons devoted to the teaching of some small branch of knowledge. Of the remaining fifty lessons, thirty-six were to be devoted to logic. Lectures begin with a discussion of the different kinds of mathematics. Dichotonic and trichotonic mathematics. Logic of relatives. Incident involving Sylvester, who claimed that mathematical work shown him by CSP, who, in turn, suspected that his work reduced to Cayley's Theory of Matrices, was really nothing more than Sylvester's umbral notation. Later CSP discovers, with some satisfaction, that what Sylvester called "my umbral notation" had originally been published in 1693 by Leibniz. CSP's bitterness revealed in his remark that he can find a more comfortable way of ending his days, if nobody is interested in his efforts to gather together the scattered outcroppings of his work in logic for the purpose of a more systematic presentation of it.

303. Lecture II
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903.
A note appended to notebook reads: "Rejected. No time for this and it would need two if not three lectures." The history and nature of mathematics. Role of diagrams in mathematics. Algebra of logic as an attempt to analyze mathematical reasoning into its logical steps. An aside on opium's "dormitive virtue": a sound doctrine but hardly an explanation. The nature of abstraction, especially mathematical abstraction. Role played by conception of collection in mathematics. Whether pure mathematics is a branch of logic. "I am satisfied that all necessary reasoning is of the nature of mathematical reasoning." Boolean algebra.

304. Lecture II. On Phenomenology
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
CSP notes "First draught" and "To be rewritten and compressed." Published: 1.322-323 (pp. 10-12). Omitted from publication is CSP's discussion of the goal of phenomenology, which is to describe what is before the mind and to show that the description is correct. Presentness (Hegel's view and CSP's contrasted). The "immediate" defined. Quality distinguished from feeling; quality as an element of feeling. Neither abstract nor complex quality is the First Category. Law of nature, with the being of law considered to be a sort of esse in futuro. An objection to this view of law noted and refuted. Reaction (or struggle) as the chief characteristic of experience. Content of the percept. No criticism of perceptual fact possible. Reaction is no more to be comprehended than blue or the perfume of a tea rose. Perception and imagination. Genuine and degenerate varieties of the Second Category. The Third Category (called "Mediation") and signs. First degenerate form of the Third Category.

305. Lecture II
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
CSP notes: "Second Draught" and "This won't do, it will have to be rewritten." Published: 5.41-56 (pp. 7-10, 13-32). Pages 1-6 and 10-13 not published.
Classification of the various sciences and the place of philosophy among them. The three principal divisions of philosophy metaphysics, normative science, and phenomenology and the relation of dependence among them.

306. Lecture II
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
Published: 5.59-65 (pp. 1-14). Only the first paragraph was omitted.

307. Lecture III
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
This lecture is subtitled: "The Categories Continued." Published: 5.71n (p. 9); 5.82-87 (pp. 16-34). Omitted: the three categories and their degenerate forms, if any. Genuine form of the representamen is the symbol. First and second degenerate forms are the index and icon respectively. Symbol, index, and icon analyzed with regard to degenerate forms. Given the three categories, all possible systems of metaphysics are divided into seven classes, e.g., into systems which admit only one of the three categories (three systems possible), systems which admit only two of the three categories (three systems possible), and that system which admits all three categories. The history of philosophy is examined for examples of each system. Schroeder's argument against admitting the Second Category into logic deemed naive, but not Kempe's argument against the Third Category. Kempe's system of graphs.

308. Lecture III
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1.
This lecture is subtitled: "The Categories Defended." Published: 5.66-81, except 5.71n1 and 5.77n1 (pp. 1-12); 5.88-92 (pp. 48-53). Omitted: whether the three categories must be admitted as irreducible constituents of thought. Objection raised against Schroeder's and Sigwart's denial of the Second Category. Discussion of Sigwart's reduction of the notion of logicality to a quality of feeling (Logical Gef,hl). Objection raised against Kempe's denial of the irreducibility of the Third Category. Brief comparison of existential graphs with Kempe's system of graphs. Whether the categories are real, i.e., "have their place among the realities of nature and constitute all there is in nature," is a question which remains to be answered.

309. Lecture IV. The Seven Systems of Metaphysics
A. MS., two notebooks, G-1903-1.
Notebook I (pp. 1-37, of which pp. 1-4 and 12-37, with exception of 25-34, were published as 5.77n and 5.93-111 respectively). Unpublished: a discussion of the possible systems of metaphysics based on CSP's categories and their combinations. In CSP's opinion, the following philosophers were on the right track: Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Scotus, Reid, and Kant. Rejection of the idea attributed to the Hegelians that Aristotle belongs to their school of thought. Aristotle and the notion of esse in futuro. The Aristotelian distinction between existence and entelechy. Ockhamists and the rise of nominalism. Analysis of infinity (pp. 24-30). The reality of Firstness (pp. 31-35). Notebook II (pp- 38-62, of which pp. 38-45, 45-49, 49-51, 52-57, and 59-62, were published separately as 5.114-118, 1.314-316, 5.119, 5.111-113, 5.57-58 respectively). Omitted is a discussion of the reality of Secondness and a consideration of the position that feelings and laws (Firstness and Thirdness) are alone real (that to say that one thing acts upon another is merely to say that there is a certain law of succession of feelings). Experience is our great teacher; invariably it teaches by means of surprises.

310. Lecture V
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-14.
A knowledge of logic is requisite for understanding metaphysics. The three categories are not original with CSP; they permeate human thought for all time. Statement of his own early intellectual behavior. The year 1856 is given as the year of his first serious study of philosophy. Beginning with esthetics (Schiller's Aesthetische Briefe) he proceeded to logic and the analytic part of the Critic of Pure Reason. Mentions his subsequent neglect of esthetics and his incompetence in this area. Reflections on esthetics. Is there such a quality as beauty? Is beauty the name we give to whatever we enjoy contemplating regardless of the reasons for liking it? Esthetic quality related to the three categories: It is Firstness that belongs to a Thirdness in its achievement of Secondness. Reflections on ethics.

311. Lecture V
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-16.
The branches of philosophy. The normative sciences: the relationships among the normative sciences; the relationship between the normative sciences and the special sciences, especially psychology; the dependence of the normative sciences upon phenomenology and pure mathematics. Description of the laborious "method of discussing with myself a philosophical question."

312. Lecture V
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1, pp. 1 50.
Published: 5.120-150 (pp. 11-50). Not published is Part I., "How I go to work in studying philosophy" (pp. 1-10), and the contents of pp. 43-47, which constitute a first draft (the published second draft is the versos of these pages) and which concern the obscurity of the relation between the three kinds of inferences and the three categories as well as CSP's attempt to achieve clarity here.

313. Lecture VI
A. MS., n.p., 1903, pp 1-31.
Perceptual judgments as involving generality and as being beyond the power of logic to criticize, as referring to singular objects, and as relating to continuous change (time, continuity, infinity). The nature of logical goodness and the end of argumentation. Logic and metaphysics. Pragmatism: the genealogy of a born pragmatist; pragmatism and realism; the ultimate meaning of a symbol. CSP's acceptance of the term "meaning" as a technical term of logic (as referring to the total intended interpretant of a symbol). The meaning of an argument and of a proposition (rhema); the meanings of such difficult abstractions as Pure Being, Quality, Relation. Definitions, it is stated, should be "in terms of the conceptions of everyday life." CSP raises one possible objection to his formulation of the maxim of pragmatism, and ends this draft with some disparaging remarks about the state of logical studies at Harvard. The objection raised is this: If meaning consists in doing (or the intention to do), is there not a conflict with the view (to which CSP subscribes) that the meaning of an argument is its conclusion, since a conclusion is an intellectual phenomenon different from doing and presumably without relation to it?

314. Lecture VI
A. MS., notebook, G 1903-1, pp. 1-43.
This manuscript is presumably the second draft of Lecture VI. Published in entirety (5.151-179) as "Three types of Reasoning." Note on the cover reads; "first 35 pages as delivered." See MS. 316 for the continuation of Lecture VI.

315. Lecture VII
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-1, pp. 1-48.
Published: 5.180-212 (pp. 1-21). The omitted pages concern the three essentially different modes of reasoning (deduction, induction, and abduction), with the pragmatic maxim identified with the logic of abduction.

316. [Lectures on Pragmatism]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., [1903], pp. 44-60.
MS. 316 continues MS. 314, and was in fact delivered as part of Lecture VI. What is the end of a term? Distinction between term and rhema. The common noun, its late development and restriction to a peculiar family of languages. Term and index. Three truths necessary for the comprehension of the merits of pragmatism: that all our ideas are given to us in perceptual judgments; that perceptual judgments contain elements of generality (so that Thirdness is directly perceived); that the abductive faculty is a shading off of that which at its peak is called "perception." Pragmatism and the logic of abduction.

* 316a. Multitude and Continuity
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903.
CSP notes that this is a "lecture to be delivered . . . in Harvard University, 1903 May 15." This lecture was delivered. See G-1903-1 and sup(1) G-1902-1.

PROPOSED ARTICLE ON PRAGMATISM FOR THE NATION

* 317. Topics of the Nation Article on Pragmatism (Topics)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-6, plus a variant p. 5 and a photostatic copy the original of which has been catalogued separately (HUD 3570) and can be dated by means of a letter from Paul E. More to CSP on the reverse side. The original, without the letter, was published in Philip P. Wiener's Evolution and the Founders of Pragmatism, p. 21. The letter is dated March 24, 190[9].
A list of sixty-three topics, with page references and the beginning of an "Index of Technical Terms."

318. Pragmatism (Prag)
A. MS., G-c.1907-1a and G-c.1907-1c, with no single, consecutive, complete draft, but several partial drafts end and are signed (Charles Santiago Sanders Peirce) on pp. 34, 77, and 86.
An article in the form of a letter to the editor of The Nation was published as follows: 5.11-13 (pp. 1-7); 5.464-496 (pp. 7-45 of one draft and pp. 46-87 of another; the last two sentences of 5.481 were spliced by the editors of the Collected Papers). Also published as 1.560-562 were pp. 20-27 of still another draft. Omitted from publication: an analysis of James's definition of "pragmatism" (pp. 10-13 of one of the alternative sections). James's pragmatism again, followed by a discussion of his own position; the two distinct opponents of pragmatism (Absolutists and Positivistic Nominalists); pragmatism and religion; law distinguished from brute fast, not, as the nominalists would have it, by being a product of the human mind, but, as the realists assert, by being a real intellectual ingredient of the universe; triadic predicates as always having an intellectual basis, the evidence for which is inductive; thoughts regarded as signs, with signs functioning triadically; three kinds of interpretants emotional, energetic, and logical; the distinction between association and suggestion; the syllogism as an associative suggestion; "corollarial" and "theoric" reasoning, of which an example of theoric deduction is the "Ten Point Theorem" of Van Standt (pp. 10-56 of a long draft from which pp. 20-27 were published). The three kinds of interpretants of signs; ultimate intellectual interpretants; pragmatism and common sense, with the meaning of critical common sense explained (pp. 43-59 of an alternative section of the long draft numbered 10-56 and described above). Kernel of pragmatism; concepts equated with mental signs; the object and interpretant of a sign distinguished; the problem of ultimate, or "naked," meaning; existential meanings; the meaning of an intellectual concept; qualities of feeling as meanings of signs, where qualities are neither thoughts nor existential events; the distinction between real and immediate (as represented by a sign) object, with immediate objects resembling emotional meaning and real objects corresponding to existential meaning; mathematical concepts as examples of logical meaning; the relationship of logical meaning to desires and habits (pp. 11-34 of another alternative section). Object and interpretant (meaning); the different units of interpretants (meanings); pragmatic definition and a prediction that pragmatism will occupy the same position in philosophy as the doctrine of limits occupies in mathematics (pp. 14-25 of an alternative section of the one described immediately above). Kernel of pragmatism; theory of signs; by inference a sign first comes to be recognized as such; the elementary modes of inference (pp. 12-30 of an alternative section). The divisions of geometry; a problem in topics; the Census Theorem and Listing Numbers; the function of consciousness; concepts and habits; the vulnerability of James and Schiller arising from their (apparent) denial of infinity, including an infinite Being (pp. 62-77 of still another alternative section). An attempt to define "sign"; the sense in which utterer and interpreter are essential to signs; the immediate and real objects of signs; a brief note on the Census Theorem (pp. 12-90, with the exception of pp. 46-87 which were published).

319. Pragmatism (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-17, with 5 pp. of variants.
An abandoned draft of a letter to the editor of The Nation. After stating the purpose of the letter, CSP discusses his philosophical ancestry and the Metaphysical Club, of which he was a member in his youth. James's position contrasted with his own. Application of the pragmatic maxim to the problem of probability. Chance and tychism.

320. Pragmatism (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-30, incomplete, with 8 pp. of variants.
Another abandoned draft. The membership of the Metaphysical Club. Types of mind. Criticism of James's views on pragmatism. Application of the pragmatic maxim to philosophical questions involving chance and probability. Nominalism as a perversion of pragmatism. Criticism of J. S. Mill's attempt to eliminate necessity by regarding "law" and "uniformity" as synonymous. Affirmation of the reality of potentialities or capacities. Pragmatism as a part of methodeutic; its connection with the experimental method of the sciences. Critical Common-sensism.

321. Pragmatism (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-27, 24-30 but no continuous draft, with 13 pp. Of variants.
Another abandoned draft. Notes invitation from The Nation to clarify pragmatism. The ancestry of pragmatism. The Metaphysical Club. Kant's nominalism explored. The views of James, Schiller, and CSP compared. Thought and signs. Experiences as the objects of signs, never their meanings. Mathematical concepts as examples of logical interpretants. How CSP was led to his formulation of the pragmatic maxim. Application of the maxim to the problem of ascertaining the meaning of probability.

322. (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 2-21, plus 3 pp. of variants.
Presumably another attempt at the article for The Nation. Pragmatic tendencies discovered in Kant. Definitions in Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding are pragmatistic. Tinge of pragmatic thought in Aristotle partly attributable to Socrates. Descartes is singled out as being pragmatistically blind. Characterization of some of the members of the Metaphysical Club, with special praise for Chauncey Wright. What pragmatism is and isn't. Pragmatism as a method of determining meaning, not a doctrine of the truth of things. A comparison of James's views on pragmatism with CSP's. Pragmatism as a rule of methodeutic. One influence of pragmatism upon metaphysics: bringing metaphysics more in line with common sense than is usually the case. The metaphysical position toward which pragmatism is favorably disposed is conditional idealism (Berkeleyanism with some modifications). Laplace and the notion of probability. Truth and error.

323. (Prag)
A. MS., G-c.1907-1b, pp. 2-12.
Apparently still another attempt at the article for The Nation. Published, in part: 5.5-10. In the unpublished part CSP writes of his "personal peculiarity, which prompts him to struggle against every philosophical opinion that has recommended itself to him before he definitely surrenders himself to it," and hence of his relative lack of bias in his discussions of pragmatism.

324. (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1907], pp. 1-3, incomplete, plus another draft of p. 1.
The Metaphysical Club, its members and its occasional visitors, e.g., Abbot and Fiske. Misunderstanding of the meaning of "pragmatism." Pragmatism is not a metaphysical doctrine. "It does not relate to what is true, but to what is meant." Alternative p. 1.: The Metaphysical Club. Of those who attended the meetings of the Club, CSP was the only one for whom Kant had an appeal. The others were inspired by the English philosophers.

MISCELLANEOUS

325. Pragmatism Made Easy (Prag)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8.
A draft of a letter to the editor of the Sun. Associating the personal names of the discoverers with the great advances made in science is defended. The study of scientific philosophy requires a religious spirit. CSP's intellectual development. The Metaphysical Club. Nicholas St. John Green, a member of the Club, brought the doctrines of Bain to the attention of the other members. The correlation of the traditional threefold division of consciousness (feeling, volition, and cognition) with the threefold division of logical predicates (predicates connected with single subjects, two subjects, and more than two subjects).

326. Some Applications of Pragmaticism (SAP)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-21; 5-10, 11-17; 2 pp. of fragments.
Apparently a draft of a letter (see p. 13). Pages 1-21: Wundt's psychology, as exemplifying a certain kind of error in philosophy; Wundt's mistaken assumption that philosophy must be based on the results of one of the special sciences (which implies that there are no immediately indubitable facts other than those which the special sciences have uncovered); Wundt's contention that philosophy requires the results of the special sciences (or else its theories are generated from thin air) is dismissed; Wundt's confusion of cenoscopy and idioscopy. Pages 5-17: Wundt as scientist distinguished from Wundt as philosopher; Wundt's success in science contrasted with his failure in philosophy. The branches of cenoscopy, the study of those facts familiar to the whole world, and the pragmatistic variety of a philosophy of common sense.

327. Why I Am A Pragmatist (OM)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8.
The meaning of abstract ideas. It would seem that either the ultimate intellectual purport of ideas conforms to the pragmatist's program or these ideas are classified with our instincts. CSP believes both to be the case. The article itself begins with a sketch of the classification of the sciences.

328. Sketch of Some Proposed Chapters on the Sect of Philosophy Called Pragmatism
A. MS., notebook, G-c.1905-6.
Published, in part, as 1.126-129 (pp. 11-17). Unpublished are the reasons why pragmatism ought to be investigated. CSP came to the position of pragmatism through the study of the following philosophers and in the order noted here: Kant, Berkeley, the other English philosophers, Aristotle, and finally the Scholastics. Whether the principle of pragmatism is self-evident. The place of philosophy among the sciences. The branches of philosophy. Pragmatism and the question of the external world. Deduction, induction and probability, and their justification.

329. Nichol's Cosmology and Pragmaticism (Carus)
A. MS., G-c.1904-3, pp. 1-6, 7 1/2-23, with parts of several other drafts, but no continuous draft.
Nichol's book is used mainly as a point of departure for CSP's own views. An early expression of the first article of the Monist series of 1905-06 on pragmatism (G-1905-1a). Published, in part, as 8.194-195 (pp. 12-15). Unpublished is a description of the experimentalist's way of thinking. CSP's disagreement with Balfour on the question of a physical reality unraveled in experiments whether a belief in a non-experiential reality is the unalterable faith of the scientist. Pragmatism, pragmaticism, and common sense. Tin doubts, toy baby scepticism. Meaning of a proper name. The pragmaticist's use of the term "real." Generality as an indispensible condition of reality. Generality and its relationship both to evolution and to the summum bonum. The pragmaticistic analysis of past and future.

330. The Argument for Pragmatism anachazomenally or recessively stated
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet; plus 5 other folded sheets which, although lacking a title or mark, seem to be connected with the first.
The argument stated. A generalized habit of conduct is the essence of a concept, i.e., its logical interpretant. The problem of evil and CSP's solution: The evil passions are evil only in the sense that they ought to be controlled, but they are good as the only possible way that man has to reach his full and normal development. The meaning of "true" and "satisfactory"; the relationship between the true and the satisfactory. Hedonism rejected.

331. [Pragmatism and Pragmaticism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
This manuscript may possibly be a draft of a letter to The Nation. See note in the body of the manuscript which reads: "Say, Garrison, was not Schiller in Cornell at one time." Pragmatism, humanism, and instrumentalism.
Whether the pragmatist's God must be finite. In CSP's opinion, a finite God cannot satisfy human instincts. Recommendation that the word "pragmatism" be employed for the looser sense of the term's meaning but that the word "pragmaticism" be retained for the more precise meaning.

332. [Pragmatism, Experimentalism, and Mach]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The true experimentalist is a pragmatist. Mach misses the bull's-eye by holding that general thought has no value other than its utility in economizing experience. But, although he misses the bull's-eye, Mach does hit the target.

333. [Fragments on the Fixation of Belief]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 29 pp., plus 3 pp. (numbered 80, 81, 86) of notes and 2 pp. Of a draft of 5.362-363.
The following information was supplied by Professor Max H. Fisch: "Of the present contents of this folder, some sequences of pages on the rag paper with the watermark J. Whatman 1868 may be parts of the paper read to the Metaphysical Club in November 1872. Others are probably, indeed almost certainly, parts of The Logic of 1873. The two slightly longer sheets of rag paper contain two pages of a draft of 'The Fixation of Belief,' probably of 1876 or 1877. The sheets of wood pulp paper numbered 80, 81, 86, or at least pages 80 and 81, probably belong to some work of the 1890's in which Peirce went over the same ground again." In connection with the numbered pages, see MS. 1002. It is of some interest to note that the earlier name for the method of tenacity was "the method of obstinacy," and instead of "authority," CSP employed the word "despotism."

334. The Fixation of Belief
Offprint from the Popular Science Monthly (G-1877-5a) with inserts: "A" (5 pp.), "B" (2 pp.), "C" (1 p.), "D" (pp. 1-3; 1-7), "E" (2 pp.), "F" (pp. 1-3; 1-7), "G" (2 pp.), "H" (2 pp.), "N" (2 pp.), unmarked (3 pp.).
Changes are indicated both in the margins and in the notes which were to be inserted in future editions of his earlier work. There is a clear indication where to insert some of the notes. With others (N, B, D, F, G, H, and those pages which are unmarked), there is no indication. The notes concern the fallibility of thinking, especially in mathematics (A); the distinction between definite and indefinite doubt, and the possibility of a third attitude of calm ignorance, whether conscious or unconscious, besides belief and doubt (C); the dependence of the validity of pure mathematics and of logic upon the validity of rational instinct, and the consequences of this for evaluating the a priori method of fixing belief (E); on Malthus and Darwin (B); the distinction between assertion and proposition and between modal propositions and the psychological modals "can" and "would" (D); the improvement of the standards of reasoning and the inward power of growth as reflected in the development of the instinct of just reasoning, with some remarks on Malthus and Darwin (F); the ultimate appeal to instinctive feelings (G); Descartes' mythical Eldorado of absolute certainty, and the attempt to attain it by methodological scepticism (H); the development of the intellect (N), and a preface to an essay on logic and reasoning, with a digression on theology (unmarked).

335. [Fragment on the Justification of Belief]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6; plus 4 pp. of another draft.
On absolute certainty: "We cannot attain absolute certainty about anything whatever, unless it be either that there are sundry seemings or something as vague as that." The proposition twice two is four fails as an example of perfect certainty.

Phenomenology


336. Logic viewed as Semeiotics. Introduction. Number 2. Phaneroscopy
A. MS., notebook, G-c.1904-2.
Published, in part: 1.285-287; 1.304 (pp. 8-22). Unpublished (pp. 1-8): Definition of "phaneron" as "anything that can come before the mind in any sense whatever" and an explanation of what it means to say "before the mind."

337. Logic viewed as Semiotic. Introduction. Number 2. Phaneroscopy
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Distinction between "manifest" and "evident." CSP claims the privilege of creating a new word, "phaneron," which is defined as "whatever is through-out its entirety open to assured observation."

338. Phanerology
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p., unfinished Definition of "phaneron."

Logic


339. Logic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., November 12, 1865-November 1, 1909.
CSP kept this notebook from 1865 until his death, recording in it (and dating) many of his investigations in their first stages: "Here I write but never after read what I have written for what I write is done in the process of forming a conception." The sheets have been ordered and numbered by Professor Don Roberts, and a page by page index has been provided by him and is kept with the notebook. Among the topics included are: real definition, the categorical syllogism, intension and extension, the logic of relatives, existential graphs, collections, the theory of signs, induction and hypothesis, the history of science, scepticism and common sense, the nature of truth, liberty and necessity.


UNIVERSITY LECTURES 1865

It is not certain that all the lectures listed below belong to the University Lecture Series or that the order in which they are noted in the catalogue is the order in which they were actually given in the spring of 1865. For instance, MS. 343 duplicates, without mentioning it, the content of 342. It is conceivable that MS. 343 is Lecture V of the 351 series. Again, MS. 345 and MS. 356 begin in the same way. It is conceivable that MS. 345 is a later draft of MS. 356.

340. Lecture I
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-2, 4-10 of one draft; p. 4 of another draft (all are double pages).
Preface on the reforms of science, including reform in logic. Plan of the lectures.

341. Lecture II
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-12 (double pages).
Problem of induction: logical or extra-logical? The answer as suggested by Aristotle's views on induction. Distinction between premises and conclusions, and between data and inference. No induction by simple enumeration. A posteriori reasoning distinguished from deduction and induction. The three figures of a priori inference; the three principles of inference a posteriori. For an earlier draft of the first page, see MS. 765.

342. Lecture III
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], 33 pp.
Theories of probabilities (Doctrine of Chances). Most of the lecture, however, concerns some peculiarities of Boole's algebra. Brief discussions of the history of logic and some sophism.

343. Lecture V
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], 36 pp.
The two kinds of scientific inference induction and hypothesis differ from the syllogistic inference as much as they do from each other. Nevertheless, the three coordinate classes of reasoning are deduction, induction, and hypothesis.

344. Lecture VI. Boole's Calculus of Logic (Boole)
A. MS., n.p., [1865-66], pp. 1-10, 11-14 (mostly double pages).
Boole's work marks an epoch in the history of logic "which in point of fruitfulness will rival that of Aristotle's Organon."

345. Lecture VII
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], 34 pp., with 2 pp. of another start.
This lecture begins the second half of the lecture series. The definition of "logic." Kinds of logical systems. All deductive reasoning is merely explicatory. Direct and indirect implication. What a word denotes and what it connotes. The sphere and the content of a word. Extension and comprehension. Being (all breadth, no depth) and Nothing (all depth, no breadth). Modification of the law of the inverse proportionality of extension and comprehension. The information of a term. On the subject of induction and hypothesis, CSP writes of the slight preponderance of true over false scientific inferences, and he finds that the reason for this is the vague tendency for the whole to be like any of its parts, taken at random.

346. Lecture VIII. Forms of Induction and Hypothesis (Forms)
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-14 (double pages).
The attempts to define "logic" suffer from an admixture of logic, anthropology, and psychology. Analysis of the triad of thing, representation, and form. The three kinds of representations: signs, copies, symbols. Conditions to which symbols are subject. The relationship between the syllogism and scientific inference. The proper form of induction. Induction and hypothesis distinguished. Induction increases the extension of subject; hypothesis increases the comprehension of predicate. Moreover, induction discovers a law which is a prohibition; hypothesis discovers a law which is an imposition.

347. Lecture X. Grounds of Induction (Grounds)
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], 15 double pp. (with one double p. missing); plus pp. 1-4, incomplete, entitled "Lecture on the Grounds of Inference." Kinds of propositions: denotative, informative, connotative. Relationship of denotative, informative, connotative propositions to propositions which are simple, enumerative, and conjunctive. The peculiarities of the latter. The three kinds of inference and their ground.

348. Lecture XI (XI)
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-16 (double pages).
Long recapitulation of the previous lecture. What is the probability that an induction or hypothesis is true? CSP concludes that the question is senseless both from the viewpoint of the nature of propositions and the nature of logic. Sundry comments on the views of Sir William Hamilton.

* 348a. (Bacon)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., p. 7 and 1 p.
A lecture on Bacon was promised (see MS. 340). But only two pages which may be part of that lecture have been found.

349. Lecture on Kant (Kant)
A. MS., n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-14, with all but p. 12 being double pages.
Presumably the 12th lecture of the University Lecture Series. "Every man who wishes to vindicate his pretensions to philosophic power must display it by the discovery of an error in Kant." Most usually the critics of Kant have simply misunderstood him. Examples of misunderstanding provided. A preliminary study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, treating such topics as the A Priori, The Transcendental Esthetic (the objective validity of the representations of space and time), Kant on the nature of judgment.

350. Lecture on the Theories of Whewell, Mill, and Compte (Whewell)
A. MS, n.p., [1864-65], pp. 1-14 (double pages).
Presumably part of the University Lecture Series. There is a note that another lecture on Waddington, De Remusat, Graty, and others was to follow this one. Several modern theories of science treated as inseparable from the metaphysics of their authors. For example, Whewell is a Kantian. Comte is "helplessly restricted to a simple intellectual view." Critisism of Mill's logic, especially Mill's views on the ground of induction.

LOWELL LECTURES ON THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE 1866

351. Lecture I
A. MS., n.p., October 24, 1866, 39 pp.
The bad reputation of logic, with its endless controversies between realism and nominalism. Among modern logicians, CSP distinguishes the formal and the anthropological logicians. Logic as a classificatory science. The traditional syllogism, with a note that the second lecture would be concerned with the hypothetical syllogism.

352. Lecture I
A. MS., n.p., 1866, 29 pp.
The nature of logic. Kinds of arguments. The moods and figures of the categorical syllogism.

353. Lecture II
A. MS., n.p., October 27, 1866, 30 pp.
Continues MS. 351. On the hypothetical syllogism. Included here is a discussion of Zeno's paradoxes as well as a discussion of several sophisms.

354. Lecture III
A. MS., n.p., October 31, 1866, 31 pp.
Probability. Meaning of "likely" and "probable." Boole's algebra. What is the justification of induction? What are the common characters of inference in general? CSP records and then criticises answers commonly given to these questions by mathematicians and theologians.

* 355. Lecture IV
A. MS., G-1866-2a, November 3, 1866, 34 pp. (numbered by an editor).
Published, in part, as 7.131-138 (pp. 27-32). Unpublished is the recapitulation of previous lecture and J. S. Mill's answer to the question of induction along with CSP's criticism of that answer, especially Mill's notion of the uniformity of nature.

356. Lecture VII
A. MS., n.p., delivered November 14, 1866, 6 pp.
This lecture begins the second half of the lecture series. Extention and comprehension. Digression on the intellectual superiority of Boston (CSP is pleased by the hearing he has received during the first six lectures, especially, as he says, on a subject as dry as logic). Role of philosophy in America: A promise of things to come, but as yet there is no American philosophy. Notes several traits in the Yankee character which are conducive to philosophizing.

357. Lecture IX
A. MS., n.p., [1866], 28 pp. and 8 pp. of different drafts; plus a quotation from Herbart.
First sense impressions are not representations of unknown things but those things themselves. Sensation and conception as representations. Universal conceptions: Substance and Being, with the intervening conceptions of Ground, Correlate, and Interpretant. Quality, relation, and representation. The three kinds of representations. Icon, index, and symbol. Division of symbol into term, proposition, and argument. Kinds of terms. Hamilton's views considered. The classification of the sciences.

* 358. Lecture X
A. MS., n.p., [1866-67], 3 pp. (fragmentary).
All cognition is inferred from some other cognition, i.e., there is no first premise or intuition. Some consequences of this view.

359. Lecture XI
A. MS., G-1866-2a, 29 pp. (page numbers supplied by an editor).
Published, in part, as 7.579-596 (pp. 1-22, with a single deletion). Unpublished (pp. 22-29): Symbols and the trinity of object, interpretant, and ground. Agreement between this trinity and the Christian Trinity. The interpretant is the Divine Logos. "If our former guess that a Reference to an interpretant is Paternity be right, this would also be the Son of God." The ground corresponds in its function to the Holy Spirit. A discussion of philosophical tendencies in children terminates with the conclusion that the peculiar differences of men are philosophical differences.

LOGIC OF 1873

360. Chapter I
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, 3 pp. of fragments.
7.315, 7.315n5, and 7.316 are from these pages.

361. Chapter I (Enlarged Abstract)
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, 2 pp.
Published in entirety: 7.313-314.

362. Chapter I (Enlarge Abstract)
A. MS., n. p., [c.1873], 1 p.

363. [Fragment]
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, 1 p.
Published, in part: 7.314n4.

364. Logic. Chapter 2. Of Inquiry
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, 1 p., incomplete; plus 9 pp. of another draft and 5 loose sheets.
Only the draft of 9 pp. was published: 7.317-325.

365. Chapter 2
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], pp. 1, 4.
The end or purpose of inquiry is to close inquiry; its end is not its own exercise. The spirit of disputatiousness is best promoted by practical applications of reason.

366. Logic. Chapter 3. Four Methods of Settling Opinion
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], p. 1, incomplete.

367. Logic. Chap. 4. Of Reality
Amanuensis, corrections in CSP's hand, G-c.1873-1, pp. 1-23.
Published, in part as 7.327-335 (pp. 1-17) Unpublished: reality and the final opinion upon which men are destined to agree. Reality is that thought with which we struggle to have our thoughts coincide. It can mean nothing at all to say that, in addition, some other reality exists.

368. Chapt. 4 (2nd Draft)
Amanuensis, corrections in CSP's hand, n.p., [c.1873], pp. 1-7.
Thought is regarded as a stream governed by the law of association. Independent reality is placed either at the beginning or the end of the stream. The law of association cannot account for the coherence and harmony of experience. Distinction between dreams and external experience.

369. Logic. Chap 4 ( ____ draft)
Amanuensis, G-c.1873-1, pp. 1-6.
Published, in part, as 7.326 (pp. 1-3). Unpublished: reflections on feeling. The relationship of feeling to other feelings is such that, apart from succession in time, there are no relationships. Every feeling in itself is unanalyzable and absolutely simple.

370. [Chapter 4. Of Reality]
Amanuensis, G-c.1873-1, 11 pp.
Published in entirety: 7.336-345.

371. Logic. Chapter IV. Of Reality
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 18 pp. of fragments.
Investigation consists of two parts: reasoning and observation. The confusion between thought as an operation of thinking and thought as an object. Belief and the habitual connection of ideas, with belief and habit of thought being one and same thing. Fixation of belief. No genuine doubt attaches to the scientific method of fixing belief, just as no genuine doubt can attach to the belief in real things.

372. Logic. Chapter IV. Of Reality
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 14 pp.
Investigation involves both observation and reasoning. Reasoning as beginning with the most obvious premises and leading ultimately to one conclusion. Reality must be connected with this chain of reasoning at one extremity or the other. Nominalistic and realistic views of reality. The scientific presentation of the doctrines of logic requires the identity of the object of true knowledge with reality. The existence of things (as studied by physicists) depends upon their manifestability. Extending this conception to all real existence leads to an idealistic theory of metaphysics, once it is clearly understood that observation and reasoning are perpetually leading us toward certain final opinions whose objects may be said to have real existence.

373. Of Reality
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, pp. 1-20.
Published, in part, as 7.331n9 (p. 2) and 7.313n3 (pp. 8-9). Unpublished: investigation as involving both observation and inference, and ultimately the agreement of all investigators. How the conception of mind is acquired. Refutation of the claim that no distinction can be drawn between knowing and knowing that one knows. Does the mind have a direct experience of its own existence from the moment it is first conscious of anything? Signs and cognitions.

374. On Reality A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 4 pp.
What is the meaning of reality? To answer this question requires an answer to the question of meaning in general. As a start CSP asks whether a feeling can be said to have meaning. An analysis of feeling reveals its complexity.

375. On Reality
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 1 p.
The notion of nothing. Absurdity and unreality are two distinct cases of nothing.

376. [Time and Thought]
Amanuensis, G-c.1873-1, March 6, 1873, pp. 1-9.
Published in entirety: 7.346-353.

377. [Time and Thought]
Amanuensis, n.p., March 8, 1873, pp. 1-9.
Temporal succession of ideas as continuous. Definition of "continuum" as "something any part of which itself has parts of the same kind." Cf. MS. 376.

378. Logic. Chap. 5th
Amanuensis, G-c.1873-1, March 10, [1873], 6 pp.
Published in entirety: 7.354-357.

379. Logic. Chap. 6th
Amanuensis, G-c.1873-1, March 10, 1873, pp. 1-10; plus an exact copy (pp. 1-8) in another hand [Zina Fay Peirce?].
Published (pp. 5-6) as 7.336n Omitted from publication: the three elements of signs. The nature of the causal connection between a thought and the thing to which it is related. Reality and figment: Reality is the most general of expressions (even a figment is a reality when considered in itself and not as the representation of something else). What is real or what exists must be an object of thought, because it is impossible to have a conception of anything which is not an object of thought. That is, the attempt to discover a word which expresses a thing that exists without, at the same time, implying that that thing is a possible object of thought results in a contradictory (or meaningless) expression.

380. Logic. Chap. 7. Of Logic as a Study of Signs
Amanuensis, n.p., March 14, 1873, 4 pp.
The three conditions for the existence of a sign.

381. On the Nature of Signs
Amanuensis, n.p., 6 pp. and 7 pp. of two drafts.
The six-page manuscript: the three conditions for the existence of a sign The seven-page manuscript: Kant's Categories of the Understanding; Medieval logic and the division of conceptions into first and second intentions; the threefold division of representation and terms.

382. Logic. Chap. 9th
Amanuensis, n.p., March 15, 1873, 12 pp.
Ambiguity and indeterminacy. Principles of formal logic. Equiparence of the copula.

383. Chap. X. The Copula and Simple Syllogism
Amanuensis, n.p., [C.1873], 6 pp.
All reasoning is reducible to syllogistic form and is dependent upon the transitive character of the copula. Formal properties of the copula.

384. Chap. XI. On Logical Breadth and Depth
Amanuensis, n.p., [C1873], 9 pp.
First and second intentions. "Breadth" and "depth" defined. Also defined "informed breadth" and "informed depth." A distinction is made between essential and substantial breadth and depth.

385. Logic Chapter. The List of Categories
A. MS., n.p., [C.1873], 2 pp.
Reality and Being distinguished. Doubt involves something fixed and something vague. The thing about which we doubt is fixed; what is in doubt about the thing is vague.

386. Chap. VIII. Of the Copula
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 3 pp., plus another page with the same title.
The properties of the copula summarized.

387. Chap. IX. Of Relative Terms
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 8 pp.
A study of the properties of individuals, i.e., the properties individuals would possess if they existed. General relative terms. Logic as the science of identity.

388. On Representations
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], 3 pp.
"Representation" defined. The three things essential for having representation.

389. On Representation
Amanuensis, corrected by CSP, n.p., [c.1873], 10 pp.
The three things which are essential for representation: Representation must have qualities independent of its meaning, it must have real causal connection to its object, and it must address itself to some mind.

390. Chapter IV. The Conception of Time essential in Logic
A. MS., n.p., July 1, 1873, 4 pp.
The conception of a logical mind presupposes a temporal sequence among ideas, for every mind which passes from doubt to belief involves ideas which follow one another in time. The flow of time is not by discrete steps, but is continuous. "Continuum" defined.

391. Chapter IV. The Conception of Time essential in Logic
A. MS., n.p., July 2, 1873, 8 pp.
MS. 391 is an expanded version of MS. 390.

392. Chapter V. That the significance of thought lies in its reference to the future
A. MS., G-c.1873-1, 4 pp.
Published in entirety: 7.358-361.

393. (Pract. Logic, Lect. Logic)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Opinions tend toward ultimate settlement. The proposition that there is some reality which determines opinions but does not depend upon them admits of two interpretations, but on either interpretation, the real is ideal. Reality and actualities.

394. Memorandum. Probable Subjects to be Treated of
Amanuensis, n.p., n.d., 1 p.

395. Third Lecture
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The question, What is thought? can only be answered by means of thought.

396. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.
Among the topics treated here are the following: relative and absolute terms; negation; the syllogism; cognition and inconceivability; thought and signs; feelings, the continuum of feelings, and time.

GRAND LOGIC 1893
("How to Reason: A Critick of Arguments")

*397. How to Reason: A Critick of Arguments. Advertisement
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 1-12.
Only the 1st paragraph of p. 1 was published: Collected Papers, Vol. 8, p. 278. Unpublished: a general summary of CSP's work in philosophy and logic, along with a short account of the significance of his efforts in logic, and a discussion of continuity as ubiquitous mediation.

398. [How to Reason: A Critick of Arguments. Advertisement]
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 1-11.
Only the last 4 paragraphs (pp. 10-11) published: Collected Papers, Vol. 8, pp. 278-279. Unpublished: a summary of CSP's work in philosophy and logic which is more detailed than the one found in MS. 397. Other subjects dealt with but not published are the analysis of propositions, the statistical syllogism, the conception of quantity and continuity, and the realism-nominalism issue.

399. How to Reason: A Critick of Arguments. Contents
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 1-3, with variants.
Pages 2-3 published: Collected Papers, Vol. 8, pp. 279-280. Only the title page was omitted.

400. Book I. Of Reasoning in General. Introduction. The Association of Ideas
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 9-83, 17-19; plus two drafts (5 pp.) of "contents."
Published in part as 7.388-450, except 392n7. Unpublished: pp. 14-51, with exception of proposition 3 on p. 23 which was published as 7.417n21. History of the doctrine of association which begins with Aristotle and continues with the English writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Digby, Locke, Hume, Hartley, Gay, among others, and the nineteenth-century English, German, and American thinkers, e.g., James Mill, Hamilton, Bain, Lewes, James, Herbart, Wundt. "Notwithstanding the writer's realism and realistic idealism, and consequent high appreciation of Schelling, Hegel, and others, and respect for German industry, he cannot but regard the English work in philosophy as far more valuable and English logic as infinitely sounder."

401. Book I. Logic in General. Introduction. The Association of Ideas
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 9-11, incomplete.

402. The Association of Ideas
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 2-13, with p. 3 missing.
The Principles of Association: the general rules in accordance with which one idea has a tendency to suggest another. Page 11 begins a Chapter II, which sets out to deal with the problem of time, memory, and experience.

403. Division I. Formal Study of General Logic. Chapter I. The Categories
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 16-29.
Association of ideas. Process of unification (the blending and spreading of ideas). Distinguishable grades in the process of unification. The conception of the present. Being and substance. The passage from being to substance is mediated by accident, whose threefold nature includes quality, relation, and representation. Quality is Firstness; relation, Secondness; representation, Thirdness. Primary qualities and feelings. Phenomenalism and the relativity of knowledge. The two great genera of relations: those whose ground is prescindible and those whose ground is not. Precision, or abstraction, distin-guished from other modes of mental separation, e.g., discrimination and dissociation. Compare with "On a New List of Categories" [PAAAS series on logic (1867)]. See G-1867-1a.

404. The Art of Reasoning. Chapter II. What is a Sign?
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 31-46 (pp. 34, 42 missing).
Published, in part, as 2.281 (pp. 35-36), 2.285 (p. 41), 2.297-302 (pp. 43-45). Unpublished: reasoning as an interpretation of signs of some kind; the three different states of mind feeling, reacting, thinking (pp. 31-34). Indices and icons (pp. 37-40). Reasoning as requiring a mixture of likenesses, indices, and symbols (p. 46).

405. Division II. Transcendental Logic. Chapter III. The Materialistic Aspect of Reasoning
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 47-54.
Published in entirety as 6.278-286.

406. Chapter IV. What is the Use of Consciousness?
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 55-58.
Published in entirety as 7.559-564.

407. Chapter V. The Fixation of Belief
A. MS. (and TS.), n.p., 1893, pp. 59-84; plus 1 p. ("Chapter IV. The Fixation of Belief").
A version of the article bearing the same title first published in the Popular Science Monthly (1877), as the first in a series of articles appearing under the general title "Illustrations of the Logic of Science." The original article of 1877 was published in the Collected Papers as 5.358-387, except 358n*, with revisions and notes of 1893, 1903, and c.1910. See G-1877-5a.

408. Division III. Substantial Study of Logic Chapter VI. The Essence of Reasoning
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 85-180 (p. 163 missing) and a variant p. 85.
Published, in part, in two places: 4.21-52 (pp. 89-146, with deletions) and 7.463-467 (pp. 168-173). Unpublished: the early history and literature of logic (pp. 85-88). Experience, reality, and belief-habits; the inner and outer world of man's experience; the law of association and its principles (pp. 147-165).

409. Division III. Substantial Study of Logic. Chapter VI. The Essence of Reasoning
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 85-141 (pp. sog, 130 missing), with 8 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 4.53-56 (but not all of 56) and 4.61-79 (pp. 91-141, with deletions). The unpublished pages concern terminology mainly: term, concept, proposition, judgment, argument, and the operation of naming. As an aside, CSP's low opinion of the logical powers of the Germans.

410. Book II. Introductory. Chapter VII. Analysis of Propositions
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 1-18; 1-19 (of a secretary's inaccurate copy).
Why should one want to reason? Reason versus instinct. Reasoning well requires an understanding of the theory of reasoning. The vocabulary of logic. Categorical and hypothetical propositions. "Every mother loves some child of hers" represented graphically. Nominalism and realism. Conjunctives.

411. Division I. Stecheology. Part I. Non Relative. Chapter VIII. The Algebra of the Copula
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 171-234.
Material Implication. CSP introduces a new symbol -| for the (his) symbol -<. All algebra based on simple definition of -|. On the infinite series of logical terms (logically necessary consequences). Five types of logical propositions. The crocodile paradox (dilemmatic reasoning). CSP regards logical algebra as important as an instrument for logical analysis, but of no great importance as calculus. Rules of logical aggregation and composition.

412. Division I. Stecheology. Part I. Non Relative. Chapter VIII. The Algebra of the Copula
Amanuensis, n.p.. 1893, pp. 20-84.
Second draft of MS. 411, but with no substantial changes.

413. Chapter IX. The Aristotelian Syllogistic
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 211-285.
Published, in part, as 2.445-460 (pp. 211-232, with deletions). Unpublished are CSP's comments on the contributions to philosophy of Hamilton, Kant, DeMorgan, and Aristotle as logicians. Importance of the syllogism, especially of the figures, in probable inference. The reduction of syllogistic forms. Natural classification of the moods. Formal fallacies, e.g., ignoratio elenchi and petitio principii. Semi-material fallacies, e.g., fallacies of ambiguity and erroneous particularization.

414. Chapter X. Extension of the Aristotelian Syllogistic
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 286-296.
Published as 2.532-535 with only the quotations from Hamilton on pp. 291-293 deleted.

415. De Morgan's Propositional Scheme
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 297-313.
CSP improves upon De Morgan's system by expanding it and giving it graphical representation. De Morgan's views on modal logic and Christine Ladd-Franklin's scheme (from Studies in Logic, by Members of the Johns Hopkins University) examined. Also examined are Gilman's views on spurious propositions.

416. On a Limited Universe of Marks
A. MS., G-1893-5 and G-1883-7c, pp. 314-325.
This manuscript is a rewritten version of one of CSP's contributions (Note A: "Extension of the Aristotelian Syllogistic") to Studies in Logic, By Members of the Johns Hopkins University (edited by C. S. Peirce), 1883. What was published (2.517-531) is the 1883 "note," as rewritten in 1893 for Chapter X of the Grand Logic. The difference between the two papers is not substantial.

417. Chapter XI. The Boolian Calculus
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 326-349.
Defense of "or" as allowing for "and." Definition of material implication. Examples from Mrs. Ladd-Franklin (in Studies in Logic). Compare with "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation"
(G- 1885-3) .

418. Book II. Division I. Part 2. Logic of Relatives. Chapter XII. The Algebra of Relatives
A. MS., n.p., 1893, pp. 350-372.
"If I have made any substantial improvement in logic, it is in the discovery of this manner of dealing with the imperfections of Boolians." Exhibiting and remedying imperfections of the Boolean calculus. Logic of relations, which, CSP says, he brought to essential completion in 1885 (G-1885-3). First and second intentional logic. Machines which are capable of solving problems in non-relative Boolean algebra, with an examination of the performance of one of them (Allan Marquand's, as reported in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, XXI. 303).

419. Chapter XIII. Simplification for Dual Relatives
A. MS., G-1893-5 and G-1883-7d, pp. 373-389, with a note that p. 376 was "struck out."
This manuscript is substantially the same as one of the contributions (Note B: "The Logic of Relatives") to the Johns Hopkins Studies in Logic. What was published (3-328-358) is the 1883 "note," with a marginal note and indications of the revisions of 1893 for the Grand Logic. New symbolism is introduced. Relatives are developed without or .

420. Chapter XIV. Second Intentional Logic
A. MS., G-1893-5, pp. 390-394.
Published in entirety as 4.80-84.

421. Division II. Methodology. Chapter XV. Breadth and Depth
A. MS., G-1893-5 and G-1867-1e, pp. 395-438.
What was published (2.391-426) is "Upon Logical Comprehension and Extension" of Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 7, November 3, 1867, with the revisions of c.1870 and 1893. What was published as 2.427-430 is a supplement entitled "Terminology" (G-1893-7). In addition to being Chapter XV of the Grand Logic, this manuscript was also intended as Essay III of the Search for a Method (1893).

* 422. Methodology. The Doctrine of Definition and Division. Chapter XVI. Clearness of Apprehension
TS, G-1893-5 and G-1877-5b, pp. 439-452; A. MS., pp. 453-456, which continues 452 of TS.
What was published as 5.388-410 is the essay "How to Make our Ideas Clear" (Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 12, pp. 286-302, 1878), with the additions of 1893.

423. Book III. Quantitative Logic. Chapter XVII. The Logic of Quantity
A. MS, G-1893-5, pp. 1-124 (pp. 2, 102-103 missing); plus a complete and corrected copy of 125 pp., neither the copy nor the corrections in CSP's hand.
Published, in part, as 4.85-152 (pp. 1-125, with omissions and with a marginal note).
424. Chapter XVIII. The Doctrine of Chances
TS., G-1893-5 and G-1877-5c, pp. 581-591.
What was published as 2.645-660 is the third article of the series "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 12, pp. 604-15, 1878), with corrections of 1893 and a note of 1910.

Minute Logic 1902-03

425. Minute Logic, Chapter I. Intended Characters of this Treatise (Logic)
A. MS., G-c.1902-2, pp. 1-170, with variants and a typewritten copy which differs only slightly from the original; pp. 1-50, with variants, of an incomplete first draft.
Publication (2.1-118) is from CSP's typewritten copy, with a few omissions consisting of repetitions and asides.

426. Chapter II. Prelogical Notions. Section I. Classification of the Sciences (Logic II)
A. MS., n.p., February 13, 1902, pp. 1-41, with 1l pp. of variants.
An earlier draft of MS. 427.

427. Chapter II. Prelogical Notions. Section I. Classification of the Sciences (Logic II)
A. MS., G-c.1902-2, begun February 20, 1902, pp. 1-291, with nearly 200 pp. Of variants; pp. 97-125, 190-192, 196-197, 244, 271-273 from alternative drafts.
A later draft of MS. 426. Published, in part, as 1.203-283 (pp. 1-123, with omissions), 7.374n10 (pp. 125-127), 7.279 (pp. 140-142), 7.362-363 and 7.366-385 (pp. 192-242). From the alternative drafts, pp. 190-192, 196-197, 271-273 were published as 7.364, 7.365, and 7.386-387 respectively. Omitted from publication are the following: notions of family, genus, species; dynamics as a suborder of Nomological Physics; statics; theories of the constitution of matter and nature; hydrodynamics; dynamics of a particle and of rigid bodies; subfamilies of rigid dynamics; molar, molecular, and ethereal physics; cross-classification; subdivision of special nomological physiognosy; crystallography; "diagrammatic" history of astronomy; minerology; chemistry; the natural metric system; suborders of physiotaxy; families of natural history; genera of biology; physiography; physiognosy; genera and species of astronomy; geognosy. From alternative drafts, the following were omitted: the Genus language; classifications of language; races of mankind and the origin of the white race; resemblances between Polynesian and Semitic languages; the question of a common linguistic ancestor; Basque; agglutinative speech.

428. Chapter II. Section II. Why Study Logic? (Logic II, ii)
A. MS., G-c.1902-2, pp. 1-128, with 33 pp. of variants.
The second page is dated April 28, 1902; the hundred and second page, April 3o, 1902. Published in entirety as 2.119-202.

429. Chapter III. The Simplest Mathematics
TS., for most part, G-c.1902-2, pp. 1-127.
Published as 4.227-323, with historical notes on signs and several theorems in algebra and logic omitted.

430. Chapter III. The Simplest Mathematics (Logic III)
A. MS., n.p., 1902, pp. 2-108 (p. 9 is missing), with many rewritten sections.
Some of the pages of this manuscript are dated; page 4, for instance, is dated January 2, 1902. On postulates (footnote on the corruption of Euclid's text and the confusion between "axioms" and "postulates"). Principles of contradiction and of excluded middle. The development of Boole's logical algebra. Logical depth and breadth. Composition and aggregation: De Morgan and Jevons. Beginning with generals, logic requires notion of inference; its primary aim is criticism of inference. Definition of an "individual." Confusion of collective identity with individual identity. Algebra of the copula of inclu-sion. The meaning of the mathematical "is." Algebraical consequence: constituents of a consequence; standard and potential constituents; proximates of a consequence. Scriptibility. The "vital" definitions of the algebra. Distinction between collective and distributive applicability of a disjunction to "v." The distinction between several and joint applicability to "v." Close
and loose combinations and their denial. Definition of the generalized copula of inclusion in five clauses. Theorems and rules of the algebra. In the alternative sections: existential graphs (pp. 14-68); explanation of CSP's notation for Boolean algebra (pp. 35-45); algebra of the copula, formal definitions of "if," "and," "or," employed in defining ; and more on consequence (pp. 56-76)

431. Chapter III. The Simplest Mathematics (Logic III)
A. MS., n.p., 1902, pp. 2-200 (p. 199 missing), including long alternative or rejected efforts.
Page 37 is dated January 5, 1902; another page, January 28, 1902. Two definitions of "mathematics" analyzed: (a) mathematics as the method of drawing necessary conclusions, and (b) mathematics as the study of the hypothetical states of things. Mathematics does not require ethics; logic does, however. Preliminary dissection of mathematics into several branches. The important rules, theorems, and demonstrations of dichotomic mathematics. Simplest mathematics is a two-valued system, but even though its subject is limited, it does enter as an element into the other parts of mathematics, and hence is important. In regard to trichotomic mathematics, it is asked, "how is the mathematician to take a step without recognizing the duality of truth and falsity?" Fundamental fact about the number three is its generative potency. Philosophical truth has its origin and rationale in mathematics. A chemical analogy. In one of the alternative sections, there is a lengthy account of CSP's dispute with Sylvester over who should receive credit for discovering the system of nonions.

432. Chapter IV. Ethics (Logic IV)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1902], pp. 1-8.
The start of a first draft. Moral virtues required in performing inductions. What constitutes a normative question? Pure ethics philosophical ethics regarded as a pre-normative science but of vital importance to the student of logic. Truth and reality.

433. Chapter IV. Ethics (Logic IV)
A. MS., G-c.1902-2, pp. 1-21.
Published in entirety as 1.575-584.

434. Chapter IV. Ethics (Logic IV)
A. MS., G-1902-2, pp. 12-234 (p. 12 follows the first eleven pages of MS. 433).
Published, in part, as 6.349-352 (pp. 20X-220). Unpublished: long footnote on the term "conscience," leading to eight rules having to do with the ethics of terminology and the governing of philosophical terminology. CSP proposes to list and examine twenty-eight conceptions or classes of supposed goods, e.g., the desirable in itself, but only gets as far as the fifteenth (all were taken from Greek philosophy, with Plato's conception of the ultimate good to have formed the basis of the fifteenth conception). At this point in the manuscript a long digression occurs which continues to the close. The digression concerns disputed points of Plato's life. In this connection, there is considerable material on the chronological order of the Platonic Dialogues as well as on Lutoslawski's researches. Sophistries in the Sophist, but Plato's definition of being as power approved. Various comments on the Politicus and Timaeus. For CSP, Plato's strength lies in his ethics, not in his metaphysics and logic.

DETACHED IDEAS ON VITALLY IMPORTANT TOPICS

435. On Detached Ideas in General, and on Vitally Important Topics as Such (1898)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-35.
Lecture I: published as 1.649-677, with omissions. Discourse on admirable and contemptible qualities. The qualities most admired, e.g., devotion and courage, are instinctual; the contemptible qualities derive from reasoning. The origin and influence of the "mechanical philosophy." "But it is one of the great virtues of scientific method that the scientist need not be a deep thinker or even a cultivated mind .... Men of this sort believe in the mechanical philosophy."

436.Lecture I (1898)
A. MS., n.p., 1898, pp. 1-34 (pp. 6-9, X 3, 15-26, 30, 33 missing).
Reason and instinct. The wise man in matters of greatest importance will follow, not his reason, but his heart. Reason and religion. The contention that metaphysics is a guide for the soul is humbug. Moreover, the talent for reasoning is as uncommon as the talent for music, and the cultivation of the first requires a greater effort with fewer immediate rewards. CSP's bitterness is not easily restrained. He advises against philosophy as a career, shows his disdain of Harvard gentlemen and of publishers who refuse to publish treatises on logic on the ground that the author is not a university professor and that the work would not pay for itself.

437. Philosophy and the Conduct of Life (PL)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-31.
Lecture I: published, in part, as 1.616-648 (pp. 1-16, 30-31). Unpublished material on the classification of the sciences and on the fact that every science grows into a more abstract science, one step higher on the classificatory scale. Asides on Plato.

438. Detached Ideas on Vitally Important Topics. Lecture II (TVI II)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-23, incomplete, with 3 loose sheets (notes for lecture).
Selection published: 4.1-5. Deleted: pp. 1-4, 11-17, 18-22 on the relationship between philosophy and mathematics and between philosophy and the exact sciences, on the gross abuse of the word "realism," on the Peircean categories and the logic of relatives. CSP offers an explanation (suggested by a theorem of the logic of relatives that no polyads higher than triads are required to express all relations) of why his list of categories is complete. Co-discoverer, with De Morgan, of the logic of relatives, CSP introduces the reader to that logic by means of existential graphs.

439. Detached Ideas continued and the Dispute between Nominalists and Realists (NR)
A. MS., n.p., 1898, pp. 1-35, with a variant p. 24.
Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, Thirdness. The system of graphs is a consequence of CSP's study of the categories. Logic of relatives and the notion of generality (universality). The continuum as the true universal. Kant on continua. The question of reality. The nominalist-realist controversy. The tendency to think of nature as syllogizing, even on the part of the mechanist. But nature also makes inductions and retroductions. Infinite variety of nature testifies to her originality (or power of retroduction). That continuity is real and the significance of this fact for a philosophy of life. CSP's extreme realism lies in his acceptance of the view "that every true universal, every continuum, is a living and conscious being." On page 28, there is a marginal note signed "WJ" (William James?): "This is too abrupt along here. Should be more mediated to the common mind."

440. Detached Ideas. Induction, Deduction, and Hypothesis (DI)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-37 (pp. 9-12 missing), plus 15 pp. of variants.
Only the four rules given on pp. 4-7 published as 7.494n9. The remainder concerns scientific and philosophic terminology, modern science and realism (the abuse of the term "realism"), the history of the discovery of the logic of relatives, the relationship of induction and retroduction to the syllogistic figures (induction as probable inference in the third figure; retroduction as probable inference in the second figure). A marginal note by "WJ" on p. 25.

441. Types of Reasoning (Ty)
A. MS., n.p., 1898, pp. 1-31 (p. 10 missing).
The relationship between logic and metaphysics. In order to enliven his lectures, CSP mentions his early interest in philosophy, and writes of the development of his thinking about logic. The controversy beween Philo and Diodorus. Scholastic doctrine of Consequentia. Hypothetical and categorical propositions and their logical equivalence. Induction, deduction, retroduction and the syllogistic forms. Induction as probable reasoning in the third figure.

442. The First Rule of Logic (FRL)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-38, with 3 pp. of variants.
Published as 5.574-589, with omissions. Omitted were pp. 13, 18, 22-24, 36-38 on Alexandre Dumas (CSP's attitude somewhat disparaging), pure mathematics, and the notion that truth is ambiguous, e.g., that a proposition might be true in religion but false in philosophy. The theoretical and practical sense of ''holding for true."

* 443. Causation and Force (TC)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-35, plus discarded pp. 13-15, 13-14, 20, 28, and 2 pp. with the titles "Time and Causation" (TC) and "Time and Causality."
Published in three places in the following order: 6.66-81; 7.518-523; 6.82-72. Only the introductory first paragraph was deleted.

444. Training in Reasoning (R)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 19.
MSS. 444 and 445 published, with deletions and pages missing, under the title "Training in Reasoning," The Hound and Horn 2 (July-September 1929), 398-416. Common or liberal education and the art of reasoning. The three mental operations carried on in reasoning: observation, experimentation, and habituation (the power of taking on or discarding habit).

445. Training in Reasoning (TR)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 17-39, plus 5 pp. of variants.
A discussion of the several kinds of observation and experimentation. Introspection. The categories connected with the three mental operations of feeling, willing, reasoning. The commonest fallacies in retroduction, deduction, and induction.

446. [Notes]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1898], pp. 1-7.
Possibly for the lecture on "Causation and Force." See MS. 443.

LOWELL LECTURES 1903

447. [Lecture I]
A. MS., n.p., 1903, pp. 1-2, incomplete, (from a notebook).
The beginning of an historical introduction to the subject of reasoning. Scientific form given to logic by Aristotle.

448. [Lecture I]
A. MS,. notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 1-48.
Published as 1.591-610, with omissions. Unpublished: Present day science suffers from a malady whose source is an argument based on the notion of a "logisches Gef,hl" as the means of determining whether reasoning is sound and whose conclusion is that there is no distinction between good and bad reasoning. This argument parallels another whose conclusion is that there is no distinction between good and bad conduct (pp. 1-12). Criticism of the defendant arguments and their premises that it is unthinkable that a conclusion be found acceptable for any other reason than a feeling of logicality and that a line of conduct be adopted for any other motive than a feeling of pleasure (pp. 33-48).

449. [Lecture I]
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 37-61.
Published, in part, as 1.611-615 and 8.176 (except 176n3) (pp. 37-49 and 51-53). Unpublished: criticism of Sigwart and the notion of "logisches Gef,hl." Logic embraces methodeutic, critic, and the doctrine of signs (speculative grammar), with the ultimate purpose of the logician being the working out of a theory regarding the advancement of knowledge. Speculative grammar is neither psychology nor epistemology. Erkenntnislehre is mainly metaphysics. CSP agrees with those metaphysicians who insist that metaphysics must rest upon logic.

450. [Lecture I]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-26.
Improvement in reasoning requires, first of all, a study of deduction. For this, an unambiguous and simple system of expression is needed. The system in which reasoning is broken up into its smallest fragments by means of diagrams is the system of existential graphs, which CSP goes on to develop in terms of fourteen conventions.

451. [Lecture I]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-21.
Refutation of the view that there is no distinction between good and bad reasoning or, for that matter, good and bad conduct, because in both cases the distinction rests on feeling which, in turn, rests upon a confusion of the pleasure afforded by the inference with the approval of it.

452. [Lecture I]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-14.
The purpose of logic; the division of logic into speculative grammar, critic, and methodeutic. Why "methodeutic" as a name is preferred to "method" or "methodology." CSP's exposition begins with logical syntax.

453. [Lecture I]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-37.
Science hampered by the false notion that there is no distinction between good and bad reasoning. This notion related to the German idea that bases logic on feeling.

454. Lectures on Logic, to be delivered at the Lowell Institute. Winter 1903- 1904. Lecture I
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-26.
Existential graphs as a system for expressing any assertion with precision is not intended to facilitate but to analyze necessary reasoning, i.e., deduction. The system introduced by means of four basic conventions (here called "principles") and four rules ("rights") of transformation.

455. [Lecture II]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-31.
The first and third parts of an introduction to the alpha and beta parts of the system of existential graphs; MS. 456 is the second part.

456. Lowell Lectures. Lecture 2. Vol. 2
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 40-66.
The second of a three-part introduction to the alpha and beta parts of existential graphs. For the first and third parts, see MS. 455.

457. CSP's Lowell Lectures of 1903. 1st Draught of 3rd Lecture
A. MS., notebook, n.p., begun October 2, 1903, pp. 1-10.
On a kind of decision procedure (in terms of alpha-possibility) for existential graphs. Cf. MS. 462.

458. Lowell Lectures. 1903. Lecture 3. 1st draught
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-33.
Science, mathematics, and quantity. Pure mathematics (the science of hypotheses) is divided in accordance with the complexity of its hypotheses. Simplest mathematics is the system of existential graphs. Doctrine of multitude: Cantor's work on collections. Understanding requires some reference to the future to an endless series of possibilities. Achilles and the Tortoise Paradox.

459. Lowell Lectures. 1903. Lecture 3
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-41.
The words "Won't do" (by CSP) appear on the cover of the notebook. Definition of "mathematics." Denial that mathematics is reducible to logic. Alternative positions considered. Existential graphs; qualities; collection; multitude (Whitehead and Russell); substantive possibility.

460. [Lecture III]
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 1-22.
Published, in part, as 1.15-26 (pp. 2-21). Gamma graphs, the third part of existential graphs, rendered intelligible by CSP's categories of Firstness, Secondness, Thirdness. And without the gamma graphs, multitude, infinity, and continuity are not easily explained. The peculiarity of gamma graphs is that they make abstractions (mere possibilities) and laws the subjects of discourse.

461. Lowell Lectures of 1903 by C. S. Peirce. Second draught of Lecture 3
A. MS., notebook, n.p., September 30, 1903, pp. 1-9; plus 2 cards which were found inserted among the unnumbered pages of the notebook.
Multitude; serial order of qualities; continuity.

462. CSP's Lowell Lectures of 1903 2nd Draught of 3rd Lecture
A. MS., n.p., October 5, 1903, pp. 2-88 (pagination by even numbers only), incomplete.
Alpha part of existential graphs: permissible operations. The Beta part. Difference between alpha-impossibility and beta-impossibility summarized [cf. MS. 457]. The Gamma part concerns what can logically be asserted of meanings. The distinction between regulative and constitutive (in Kant). The logical doctrine called "Pragmatism." CSP claims that he has been unjustly called a sceptic, a second Hume. The "joke" about opium's dormitive virtue. Possibility and necessity (Locke's confusion). Qualities as mere possibilities. Relations are qualities of sets of subjects. Dyadic and triadic relations. All triadic relations are, more or less, thoughts. Doctrine of signs; icons, indices, and symbols.

463. Lowell Lectures of 1903. Lecture III. 2nd Draught
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 11-17 (pp. 1-9 are mathematical notes and have nothing to do with the lecture).
On multitude and collection.

464. CSP's Lowell Lectures of 1903. Part 1 of 3rd draught of 3rd Lecture
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, begun October 8, 1903, pp. 1-64, 68.
Published in two places: 1.324 and 1.343-349 (pp. 30-34 and 36-64 respectively). Note that part of 1.349 comes from page 68 of MS. 465, with p. 68 of that manuscript continuing p. 64 of this one. Omitted is a discussion of existential graphs, especially alpha and beta possibilities (pp. 1-30) and a discussion of the category of Firstness (pp. 34-36).

465. CSP's Lowell Lectures of 1903. 2nd Part of 3rd Draught of Lecture III
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, October 12, 1903, pp. 68-126; A1-A8.
Published, in part, as 1.521-544 (pp. 68-126, with only the first and last paragraphs deleted). Pages A1-A8, unpublished, are mainly a reply to a listener's note asking, "What makes a Reasoning to be sound?" The note itself (dated November 27, 1903) has been inserted opposite p. A1. Also unpublished is material on the beta part of existential graphs.

466. Useful for 3rd or 4th?
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 1-28, unfinished, with two p. 19's, both of which leave text intact.
Mathematics and logic; existential graphs introduced initially to illuminate the nature of pure mathematics, and then used in the discussion of multitude.

467. C. S. Peirce’s Lowell Lectures for 1903. Lecture 4.
A. MS., 2 notebooks, G-1903-2a, pp. 1-96.
Two volumes comprise the fourth lecture, with the first volume entitled "Gamma Part of Existential Graphs." Volumes I and II (pp. 1-96) published as 4.510-529, with deletions. Deleted: brief history of exact logic, i.e., logic begun by De Morgan, including CSP's entitative and existential graphs (pp. 8-18). Opium's dormitive virtue; abstraction, including Hegel's abuse of the term (pp. 66-78).

468. CSP's Lowell Lectures of 1903. Introduction to Lecture 5
A. MS., notebook, n.p., December 4, 1903, pp. 1-9.
Gamma part of graphs continued (but quickly abandoned). Graphs of logical principles. Beta part.

469. Lowell Lectures. 1903. Lecture 5. Vol. 1
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 2-74.
Doctrine of multitudes. Breadth and depth. Reference to Bertrand Russell's Principles of Mathematics in connection with the question, Is a collection which has but a single individual member identical with that individual or not? Cantor's system of ordinal numbers.

470. Lecture 5,. Vol. 2
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 76-158.
At the beginning CSP offers the following plan for his lecture series: "1. What makes a reasoning sound, 2. Existential Graphs, Alpha and Beta, 3. General Explanations, Phenomenology and Speculative Grammar, 4. Existential graphs, Gamma Part, 5. Multitude, 6. Chance, 7. Induction, 8. Abduction." Collection and multitude; syllogism of transposed quantity; Fermatian reasoning; first and second ultranumerable multitude; continuity (pp. 78-122). Gamma graphs (pp. 124-138). The beginning of a lecture occasioned by the death of Herbert Spencer. Mentioning his personal encounters with Spencer, CSP writes on Spencer's evolutionism and his influence on philosophy generally (pp. 140- 158) .

471. [Lecture V]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, 10 pp.
On multitude and collection.

472. Lowell Lectures. 1903. Sixth Lecture. Probability
A. MS., 2 notebooks, G-1903-2a, pp. 2-130.
Published, in part, as 6.88-97 (pp. 8-62). Omitted: the relationship between logic and mathematics; independence of logic from metaphysics but not vice versa (pp. 2-7). Doctrine of chances: reference of the word "chance," in all its meanings, to variety; chance not a matter of ignorance but of the immense diversity of the universe; the tendency of this diversity to grow into uniformities; the conception of the "long run"; mathematical theory of probabilities; probability as requiring some objective meaning; CSP's advice to stop talking of probabilities in connection with the doctrine of chances and to talk instead of ratios of frequency; the difficulty most people have of understanding why it is not logically impossible that an event whose probability is zero should nevertheless occur; and, finally, Hume on miracles (pp. 62-130).

* 473. C. S. Peirce’s Lowell lnstitute Lectures. 1903, Seventh Lecture. Introduction Vol. I
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 2-92.
Published, in part, as 7.110-130 (pp. 36-84). Omitted from publication: a discussion of deduction, induction, and abduction (pp. 2-35). The rationale of induction; Ockhamists versus Scotists; John Stuart Mill and the question of the uniformity of nature (pp. 85-92).

474. [Lecture VII]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1903, pp. 96-152.
Volume II of the Seventh Lecture. Law, uniformity, and variety. Critical comments on Mill's views on the uniformity of nature. For CSP it is obvious that nature is not uniform, but that variety is nature's leading characteristic. His realism is opposed to Mill's nominalism. The problem of induction, with solutions by Abbe Gratry, Laplace, and CSP.

475. C. S. Peirce’s Lowell Lectures of 1903. Eighth Lecture, Abduction
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 2-92 (pagination is somewhat irregular but the text is continuous).
Volume I. Published, in part, as 5.590-604 (pp. 28-92). Unpublished: the division of reasoning into deduction, induction, and abduction as deriving from Aristotle and Boole. The relationship of the three kinds of reasoning to the syllogism. A brief review of CSP's own reflections on the kinds of reasoning, noting articles he published and the errors and confusions these contain.

476.C. S. Peirce’s Lowell Lectures of 1903. Eighth Lecture, Abduction. Vol. 2. Pythagoras
A. MS., notebook, G-1903-2a, pp. 94-168.
Only p. 95 published: 7.182n7. Unpublished are several examples of abduction. Life of Pythagoras as affording the prime example. CSP treats historical topics about which there has been considerable debate, claiming that his abductions have been verified - contrary to the expectations of historians - on five occasions.

477. Notes for a Syllabus of Logic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., June 1903, 17 pp., incomplete.
The syllabus was intended as a supplement to the Lowell Lectures of 1903. Ingredients of the phaneron. Phaneroscopic descriptions of consciousness. Aristotle's categories and predicables.

* 478. Syllabus of a course of Lectures at the Lowell Institute beginning 1903, Nov. 23. On Some Topics of Logic (Syllabus)
A. MS., G-1903-2b and G-1903-2d, pp. 1-168 (pp. 106-136 missing); a second title page; pp. 2-23 of a revised section; 69 pp. of variants; and a corrected copy of the printed syllabus.
A second version of the above title, "A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic," became the title of the pamphlet published by Alfred Mudge & Son, Boston, 1903. The pamphlet, however, is not an exact copy of the manuscript, several sections having been omitted. From the manuscript, pp. 1-26 and 137-149 were published in the pamphlet as pp. 1-14 and 15-20 respectively. Transformation rules for existential graphs are treated in an abridged form on pp. 20-23 of the pamphlet. For publication of the pamphlet in the Collected Papers, see G-1903-2b. Pages 43-46, 47-48, 48-50, and 50-89 published respectively as 2.274-277, 2.283-284, 2.292-294, and 2.309-331. Omitted from publication: sundry logical conceptions; Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, Thirdness; the possibility of certain kinds of separation of thought; dissociation, precision, discrimination; the categories in their forms of Firstness (phenomenology); the normative sciences and their interrelations; the division of logic into speculative grammar, logical critic, and methodeutic (pp. 27-42). Arguments as symbols; classification of arguments into deduction, induction, and abduction; etymology of deduction (pp. 89-105).

LOGICAL GRAPHS

479. On Logical Graphs (Graphs)
A. MS., G-c.1903-3, pp. 1-64; plus 30 pp. of several starts.
Published as 4.350-371, with deletions. Deleted: two complicated examples on pp. 5-8, 21-22 and some random comments, concerned chiefly with Eulerian diagrams and the history of logical graphs.

480. On Logical Graphs (Acad. Graphs)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-l9, plus 3 pp. of variants.
Apparently an early form of what was to evolve into existential graphs. Formation and transformation rules of the system.

481. On Logical Graphs
A. MS., n.p., n.d., p. 1-10.
A system of graphs using "curves convex inwards," and presumed to be an improvement over Euler's diagrams and logical algebra.

482. On Logical Graphs
A. MS., n.p., [c. 1896-98], pp. 1-30; plus 192 pp., partially ordered, but mainly a confusion of alternatives or rejects.
Includes partial drafts of several different papers (e.g., parts of an early draft of 3.468 ff.). Application of topology to logical graphs; examples and rules for interpretation; illative transformations.

483. On Existential Graphs
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901], pp. 1-9, plus 21 pp. of variants.
Several attempts to write the same pages. Basic conventions of the system of existential graphs. A reference to the Monist article of January 1897.

484. On Existential Graphs (F4)
A. MS., n.p., 1898, pp. 1-28; 11-15, 20.
Application of topology to logical graphs, followed by a development of the constitutive conventions of existential graphs. Remarks on the equivalence between existential graphs and familiar (ordinary) language. Elementary rules of illative transformation deduced from basic rules of existential graphs.

485. On Existential Graphs (EG)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, with at least three other attempts, none going beyond p. 2, and with another six attempts to write the same, but under the subtitle "Rules of (their) Illative Transformation."

486. Existential Graphs
Amanuensis, with marginal notes in CSP's hand, n.p., n.d., p. 1-10. Twenty-three "Rules for their Illative (Logical) Transformation."

487. [Transformation Rules for Existential Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Seventeen rules are given, the last ten of which are derived from the first seven (or basic rules for existential graphs).

488. Positive Logical Graphs (PLG)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6, plus 2 pp. of variants.
"Logical graphs" was the early name for what later became existential graphs. Definitions and conventions of the system.

489. Investigation of the Meaning It Thunders
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8.
An essay in which the meaning of the cut (or circle) in the example It thunder is derived from certain basic rules for existential graphs.

490. [Introduction to Existential Graphs and an Improvement on the Gamma Graphs]
A. MS., notebook, G-1906-2.
CSP wrote on the cover of the notebook: "For the National Academy of Sci. 1906 April Meeting in Washington." Published, with omissions, as 4.573-584. Cf. MS. 480.

491. Logical Tracts. No. 1. On Existential Graphs
A. MS., n.p., [c 1903], pp. 1-12; 1-10; 1-3; 11 pp. of variants. Logical and existential graphs (pp. 1-12). Basic definitions and principles of representation (pp. 1-10). Icon, index, symbol (pp. 1-3).

492. Logical Tracts. No. 2. On Existential Graphs, Euler's Diagrams, and Logical Algebra
A. MS., G-c.1903-2, pp. 1-141 (pp. 85 and 120 missing), with 104 pp. of variants; plus several alternative sections (pp. 3-41, with 5 pp. of variants; 18-41, with 4 pp. of variants; 19-39, with 15 pp. of variants).
Published, in part, as 4.418-509 (pp. 1-141, with omissions). Omitted: a translation of Euclid and a pair of complicated examples. From alternative sections: the relationship of symbols to past, present, and future; replicas; si signs, bi signs, and ter signs (pp. 19-39 of one section. Connexus and lines of identity; a selective connexus; phenomenology; representamens (icons, indices, symbols); si signs, bi signs, ter signs (pp. 18-41 of another section).

493. The Principles of Logical Graphics
A. MS., small red leather notebook, n.p., n.d.
Over one hundred-fifty examples of existential graphs illustrating "fundamental assumptions." Illative transformations. Rules of existential graphs: erasure and insertion, iteration and deiteration.

494. Existential Graphs: A System of Logical Expression
A. MS., standard size notebook, n.p., n.d.
A development of the existential graphs from "Constitutive Conventions" up to proofs of theorems, with good examples of graphs. Also three pages on a "Deduction of the Rule of Addition of Integers in the secundal system."

495. Logical Graphs
A. MS., small notebook, n.p., n.d.
Two attempts at a presentation of the existential graphs. Neither attempt gets beyond the "Constitutive Conventions."

496. [Notes on Graphs]
A. MS., notebook (Cyclone Composition Book), n.p., n.d.

497. [Notes on Graphs]
A. MS., small notebook, n.p., June 1897.
Note inscription on first page: "C. S. Peirce from Francis Lathrop 1897 June 15." Basic rules and commentary.

498. On Existential Graphs as an Instrument of Logical Research
A. MS., notebook (Harvard Cooperative), n.p., n.d.
Evidently prepared as an address to the American Academy. CSP mentions that existential graphs were discovered by him late in 1896, but that he was practically there some fourteen years before. The graphs were not invented to serve as a calculus, but to dissect the inferential process. Two puzzles examined with a view toward testing the system of graphs. One puzzle concerns the relation of signs to minds, and of communication from one mind to another. The other puzzle concerns the composition of concepts and the nature of judgment or, antipsychologically speaking, propositions, Signs; reality; conventions of the system of existential graphs.

499. On the System of Existential Graphs Considered as an Instrument for the Investigation of Logic
A. MS., notebook (Harvard Cooperative), n.p., n.d.
The value of logical algebras. Logic as a calculus: CSP's minority report. The way in which the system of existential graphs serves the interest of the science of logic. Solutions suggested by the method of existential graphs to two problems, one of which concerns the relation of signs to minds and the other the composition of concepts. Existential relations of signs, from which is deduced a classification of signs and a nomenclature useful in describing existential graphs.

* 500. A Diagrammatic Syntax
A. MS., n.p., December 6-9, 1911, pp. 1-19.
A letter to Risteen on existential graphs.

501. [Worksheets on Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 92 pp.
The worksheets are concerned mainly with two axioms: Something is scriptible and something is unscriptible.

502. Peripatetic Talks. No. 2 (PT2)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4, plus 2 pp. of two other starts.
On the presuppositions of logic, e.g., that there is error, that - up to a point - it is eradicable, that there is some method of eradicating it. On the essential characteristics of belief.

503. Peripatetic Talks. No. 4 (PT4)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6; 3-5.
On the five fundamental rules of existential graphs, and some of their consequences.

504. Peripatetic Talks. No. 6 (PT6)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7.
On existential graphs. A defect in the system: There is no proper form for expressing the proposition that "There is some clergyman who praises every lawyer each to a doctor, so that for every possible distribution of such praises, there is a distinct clergyman who performs the praise."

505. Peripatetic Talks. No. 7 (PT7)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, with another 1 p. start.
The proposal is made to restate the fundamental principles of existential graphs in a new form. Three rules are listed and illustrated.

506. Existential Graphs
A. MS., small brown notebook, n.p., n.d.
List of rules: Rule XI - Rule XXIII. On back pages of notebook, CSP forms 62 words, beginning with the letter C, from the letters of the word "instruction," the purpose of which is not evident.

507. [Existential Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.
Beta and gamma graphs, with algebraic translations. Rules of transformation.

508. Existential Graphs. Rules of Transformation. Pure Mathematical Definition of Existential Graphs, regardless of their Interpretation (Syllabus B)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. B1-B6.
An early draft of 4.414-417, together with some discussion of the gamma part of existential graphs.

509. Gamma Graphs
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.

510. [Notes on Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp.

511. (D)
A. MS,. n.p., n.d., pp. D3-D7, with 7 pp. of variants.
Hypotheses concerned with permissions and prohibitions and with possibility and necessity. These pages are part of MS. 3.

512. (SM)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
These pages are part of MS. 2.

513. (FL)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 27-98, incomplete and in some disorder, with missing sections and many alternatives and/or rejects.
The first part of the manuscript is concerned with logical algebra. CSP's graphical method (pp. 52-78), with a note that "my cumbrous General Algebra with all its faults, seems preferable." Pages 78 ff. present another algebraic system which is labelled the "Algebra of Dyadic Relatives" and which "seems to have fascinated Professor Schr^der much more than it has me." The Algebra of Triadic Logic is mentioned ("But I have never succeeded in perfecting it").

* 514. [Fragments on Existential Graphs]
A. MS., n.p., [1909], 53 pp.

LOGICAL ALGEBRA

515. On the First Principles of Logical Algebra (First Prin)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-34, with 25 pp. of variants.
Indecomposable transformations. Rules of transformation, with commutation and association developed from these rules. Implication; contradiction and excluded middle; aggregation and composition. Ethics of terminology applied to the case of Boole's creation of logical algebra. Transitive relations; incompossibility; identity and lines of identity. Propositions and signs; universal, particular, individual propositions; subject of propositions. Among the variants, the following topics occur: lines of identity; individual, definite, and singular terms; rules for existential graphs. Also the initial discussion of categoriology in connection with logical terms.

516. On the Basic Rules of Logical Transformation
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-51, plus 45 pp. of variants.
First principles of Boolean algebra as extended by CSP to the logic of relatives with a view toward developing certain other notations. The system of symbols employed is that of existential graphs.

517.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-85, with 81 pp. of variants.
Part I. A reference to CSP's "New Elements of Mathematics," for which no publisher could be found, and mention of the loss of CSP's power of writing about logic in a mathematical way, which, in point of fact, he no longer admires. Part II. On definition, postulate, axiom, corollary, theorem; signs, interpretants, entelechy; theory and practice; real relations and reactions; judgment and proposition; judgment and assertion; belief, affirmation, and judgment; doctrine of signs. Criticism of nominalism. The nature of "law"; event and fact; internal and external causes. Law signifies more than mere uniformity; it involves real connections. An improvement upon the traditional doctrine of causation. Symbols unable to exert force, but do govern things (for they are laws). A symbol signifies what it does, as in the feeling of "having been in a present situation before" - a case of accident, not of inherent necessity. Symbols as having grades of directness to the limit of being their own significations, and as having the power to reproduce themselves and to cause real facts. Reality as the limit of the endless series of symbols. Symbols and language, with language unable to provide a basis for logic. "How the constitution of the human mind may compel men to think is not the question; and the appeal to language appears to me to be no better than an unsatisfactory method of ascertaining psychological facts that are of no relevancy to logic. But if such appeal is to be made (and logicians generally do make it, in particular their doctrine of the copula appears to rest solely upon this) it would seem that they ought to survey human languages generally and not confine themselves to the small and extremely peculiar group of Aryan speech."

518. [The Regenerated Logic]
A. MS., G-1896-6a, pp. 1-29, 17-21, 25-28.
This is the manuscript of the "The Regenerated Logic" (Monist, Vol. 7, pp. 19-40, 1896) which was reprinted as 3.425-455.

519. Studies in Logical Algebra
A. MS., notebook, n.p., May 20-25, 1885.

520. [Schroeder's Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-27, incomplete; 41-44; plus 5 pp. of variants.

521. Schroeder's Logic of Relatives
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-33, with 19 pp. of variants.

* 522. Notes on Schroeder's Logic of Relatives
A. MS., small red notebook, n.p., n.d.; and 1 p. continuing the comparison of CSP's symbolism with Schroeder's begun on pp. 38-41 of the notebook.

523. Notes on Schroeder's 3rd Volume
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

524. [Schroeder and the Logic of Relations]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-9.

* 525. [Fragment on Schroeder]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., p. 10.

* 526. Logic of Relatives. No. 2
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4; plus pp. 2-4 of Paper I.
Papers I and II are part of a series announced by the Pike County Press, Milford, Pa., 1895-96, but never published.

* 527. On the Algebra of Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp. of a manuscript draft; 12 pp. of a typed draft (corrected by CSP); a reprint of "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation" (G-1885-3); and 2 pp. of fragments.
Reprint of an article for the American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1885. Published again as 3.359-403, except 369n (p. 230), with an undated marginal note, 384n1.

528. On the Algebra of Logic
Reprint, G-1880-8.
Reprint of an article for the American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 3, 1880. Published again as 3.154-251, except 154n1 and 200n* (p. 128), with an editor's marginal corrections and with the revisions of 1880, c.1882, and undated.

* 529. Description of a Notation for the Logic of Relatives, resulting from an Amplification of the Conceptions of Boole's Calculus of Logic
Reprints, G-1870-1.
Two reprints from Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (communicated January 26, 1870). One reprint is annotated by CSP; the other contains marginal notes, not by CSP. Published again as 3.45-149, except 45n*, with revisions from CSP's own copy.

530. A Proposed Logical Notation (Notation)
A. MS., n.p., [C.1903], pp. 1-45; 44-62, 12-32, 12-26; plus 44 pp. of shorter sections as well as fragments.
Ethics of terminology. The history of logical terms and notations, and CSP's recommendation of "the best algebraical signs for logic." On the Stoic division of hypothetical propositions. CSP's division of hypothetical propositions. Graphs, algebra of dyadic relations, linear associative algebra, nonions.

* 531. Brief Account of the Principles of the Logic of Relative Terms
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp. (fragmentary).
Explanation of the three kinds of logical terms: absolute, simple relative (dyadic), and conjugative (triadic or higher). The logical copula.

532. The Logic of Relatives, Qualitative and Quantitative
A. MS., n.p., [c1885], 13 pp. and 7 pp. of two drafts; plus 7 pp. of fragments. Two drafts distinguishable, the shorter of which has the title "The Logic of Relations, Qualitative and Quantitative." Algebraic notation explained, and principal rules of transformation, with proofs, provided. Its advantage over the Boolean algebra consists in the fact that it can do everything the Boolean algebra does without employing any superfluous symbols.

533. On the Formal Classification of Relations
A. MS., n.p., [1880's], 13 pp. (fragmentary).
Different starts on the same problem of formal classification. The classification of relatives with respect to single elements, pairs of elements, continuum of elements, and infinity of elements.

534. The Logic of Relatives
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
The classification of relations with respect to the two broad classes of logical and real. Under logical relations, CSP distinguishes four classes: incompossibility, identity, otherness, coexistence. Under real relations, he distinguishes the following: aliorelations, concurrencies, anti-aliorelations, anti-concurrencies, variform relations.

535. [A Boolean Algebra with One Constant]
A. MS., G-c.1880-1, 7 pp.
Published in entirety: 4.12-20.

* 536. Dual Relatives
A. MS., n.p., 1889, 17 pp.
Several attempts at the same paper. Distinction between logical and real relations. The four principal logical relations and the five classes of real relations. Boolean algebra. Cf. MS. 533.

537. An Elementary Account of the Logic of Relatives
TS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp. of which some are duplicates.

538. Divisions and Nomenclature of Dyadic Relations (Dy. Rel.)
A. MS., n.p., [C.1903], pp. 1, 3-6, 9-12, 15, 19, 21-23, 29-30, and variants. Earlier draft of MS. 539. See G-1903-2c.

539. Nomenclature and Divisions of Dyadic Relations (Syllabus)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1903], pp. 106-135 (p. 134 missing).
Modal and existential dyadic relations. See G-1903-2c.

540. Nomenclature and Division of Triadic Relations, as far as they are determined (Syllabus)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 134-155, plus 7 pp. of variants.
Provisional division of triadic relations into relations of comparison, performance, and thought. The three correlates of any triadic relation. Doctrine of signs: classes of signs.

541. (Syllabus 7)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

542. (Class of Dyadic Rel.)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-4.

543. [Triadic Relations]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 29-37 (3 folded sheets).
Reduction of tetradic relations. CSP maintains that every relation higher than triads is resolvable into a combination of triadic relations, and he conjectures that Royce holds the position that every dyadic relation is really a triadic one.

544. The Logic of Relations
A. M.S., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-9, plus 6 pp. of variants.
The three grades of clearness. Relations in their different grades of clearness.

545. [Notes on the Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.

546. Comments on Cayley's "Memoir on Abstract Geometry" from the point of view of the Logic of Relatives
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

547. Logic of Relatives
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 18 pp.
An attempt to state the main results of the work of Augustus De Morgan and A. B. Kempe. The remainder of the paper is fragmentary but involves, in part, a statement and proof of the principles of nonrelative logic; for example, those of identity, modus ponens, and commutation.

548. Logic of Relatives
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Association formulae. The external product of pairs. The converse. Relations of combination of four terms. Axioms of number. Relative of simple correspondence.

549. [Algebra of Logic]
A. MS., n.p., [C.1882-83], pp. 1-10.
Reference to a note by Mrs. Ladd-Franklin on the Constitution of the Universe (JHU Studies in Logic, p. 61). Principle of excluded middle. Cf. MS. 560.

550. [Algebra of Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Ascertaining by algebra whether the answer to any question, as "Whether Elijah was caught up in heaven," is contained in what we already know.

551. A Problem in Testimony
TS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
The solution to a problem found in Boole's Laws of Thought. CSP's solution is, in effect, the same as Boole's though expressed differently.

552. [Relative and Non-relative Terms]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

553. [On the Algebra of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n. d., 33 pp.
Various pages for a proposed book on logic, mostly on the algebra of relatives. Other topics covered are logical graphs, induction, deduction, and the statistical syllogism (probability).

554. [Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

555. [Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., [1892?], 18 pp.

556. [Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., sections of 12 pp., 8 pp., and 3 pp.

557. [Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 21 pp.

* 558. [Logic of Relatives]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 14-28.

559. [Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 121 pp.
Notational conventions. The introduction of superfluous elements into algebra for purposes of balance and homogeneity. Rules of algebraical procedure. The three laws of thought: identity, contradiction, and excluded middle. Logic and the uses of ordinary language. Aristotle's propositional forms.

560. [Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-27, incomplete.
Principle of excluded middle. Reference to G-1880-8 and an attempt to show that a logical algebra can be constructed without the special signs and as quantifiers. Cf. MS. 549

561. The Boolian Calculus
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Boolean algebra and the problem of continuity.

562. Note on the Boolian Algebra
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.

563. [An Improvement on Boole's Treatment of the Function]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.

564. Boolian Algebra. First Lecture
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp. (fragmentary).
Introductory remarks to a lecture on Boole with discussions of improvements (by other logicians) of the Boolean algebra.

565. Chapter II. Interpretation of Logistic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.

566. Chapter III. Development of the Boolian Notation
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

567. [A Note to "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation" (G-1885-3)]
A. MS., C-1885-3 (c.1885), 47 pp., and a crumbling copy (not in CSP's hand) on the same subject. See sup(2)G-1885-3.
Published in entirety as 3.403A-403M.

568. Chapter III. Development of the Notation, begun
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

569. [Algebraical. Rules. to which Sign -< is Subject]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6; 1-4, with a variant p. 4.

* 570. Sketch of the Theory of Non-Associative Multiplication
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, incomplete.

571. Logical Addition and Multiplication
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.

572. [Non-Commutative Multiplication and other Topics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 15 pp.

573. [Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 28 pp.
Algebra of the copula. Special modification of the Boolean algebra. The faults of ordinary language as an instrument of logic. Ordinary language is more pictorial than diagrammatic, serving well the purposes of literature but not of logic.

* 574. [Notes on Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 45 pp.
Negative and converse. Fundamental formulae of converse. Copulas.

575. [Notes on Logical Algebra]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 50 pp.
These pages are devoted mainly to the copula of inclusion. Brief comments on the uses of logical algebra and on the alleged connection between logical algebra and the doctrine of the quantification of the predicate.

576. Of the Copulas of Algebra
A. MS., n.p., April 27, 1871, 8 pp.

577. Algebra of the Copula
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp., representing four starts.

578. Algebra of the Copula
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

579. Algebra of the Copula
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 76 pp.

580. The Mathematics of Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Various ways of expressing inclusion. CSP introduces a new sign of inclusion: A B.

581. Notes on Logic
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1902.
On the demonstrative part of arithmetic; the formal Boolean; haecceity.

582. Boolian Algebra
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

583. Notes on History of Algebraical and Logical Signs
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

MISCELLANEOUS 1869- 1913

584. Lectures on British Logicians. Lecture I. Early Nominalism and Realism
A. MS., G-1869-2, pp. 1-14; 1-17 ("Lectures on British Logicians"); 2 pp. ("List of British Logicians").
The first of a series of fifteen lectures on "British Logicians," given by CSP at Harvard during 1869-70 at the request of the President of Harvard. Published, in part, as 1.28-29 and 1.30-34 (pp. 2-4 and 6-11 respectively). Unpublished are CSP's reflections on the history of logical controversies of the medieval period and other reflections, mainly on Scotus Erigena (pp. 1, 5, 12-14). Various definitions of "logic"; distinction between psychological and logical questions; Alcuin; Aristotle's "Organon" (pp. 1-17).

585. Ockam
A. MS., notebook, n.p. [1869]; plus another notebook ("Abstract of Occam's Summa Logices").
The history of logic. Nominalism and realism, with comments on Francis Bacon and J. S. Mill.

* 586. Whewell
A. MS., notebook, n.p., [1869].

587. Notes for Lectures on Logic. To be given 1st Term. 1870-71
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 6 pp.
Problem of meaning and truth. Meaning distinguished both from the sign itself and from the thing signified. The agreement of meaning and reality. How can two things as incommensurable as meaning and reality be said to agree?

588. Preface
A. MS., G-1883-7a, 6 pp.; plus 6 pp. of an earlier draft.
The preface is to the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic.

589. The Critic of Arguments. III. Synthetical propositions a priori
A. MS., G-1892-1b, 52 pp.
This is presumably the third paper of The Open Court series of 1892 of which only the first two papers were published in The Open Court. Published, in part, as 4.187n1 (pp. 5-8). Omitted from any publication: geometrical propositions and the notion of synthetic propositions a priori. CSP rejects the view that, while arithmetical propositions are analytic, geometrical ones are synthetic. Properties of number: Numbers are infinite, and the Fermatian inference is applicable to the whole collection of them. Counting.

590. The Critic of Arguments. III
A. MS., n.p., 1892, 23 pp., plus 16 pp. of another draft and 6 pp. of variants.
Mathematical propositions a priori.

591. [Critic of Arguments. IV]
A. MS., n.p., 1892, 11 pp.

592. A Search for a Method. Essay I
Printed Article (annotated), G-1893-6 and G-1867-1b.
This is the printed article of 1867, "On the Natural Classification of Arguments," together with photostats of the missing pages and with additions and corrections of 1893. 2.461-561 is the 1867 article with the additions and corrections of 1893; that is, Essay I of "A Search for a Method."

593. [A Search for a Method. Essay VI]
Printed Article, G-1893-6 and G-1868-2c, pp. 249-264.
This is the printed article of 1868, "Grounds of Validity of the Laws of Logic," along with the corrections found in the margins of the pages of the article. 5.318-357 is the 1868 article with the corrections of 1893; that is, Essay VI of "A Search for a Method."

594. [A Search for a Method: Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., 1893, 131 pp.
One page has the title: "The Quest of a Method. Essay I. The Natural Classifications of Arguments." Among the topics found in these pages are questions of terminology, the algebra of the copula, forms of propositions, and the analysis of reasoning.

* 595. Short Logic
A. MS., G-c.1893-3, pp. 1-32, 33-38; plus 14 pp. of variants.
Selections published as follows: 2.286-291 (pp. 6-13); 2.295-296 (pp. 14-16); 2.435-443 (pp. 23-29, with the omission of p. 25); 7.555-558 (pp. 29-32). Unpublished are remarks on elementary philology and the definition of "logic," along with some historical footnotes.

596. Reason's Rules (RR)
A. MS., G-c.1902-3, pp. 1-47, with 11 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 5.538-545 (pp. 21-45). Omitted is a dialogue between author and reader, with an aside about the Hegelian dialectic. The various extra-firm beliefs which the reader has about reasoning and belief itself: the reader's logica utens. Doubt, its derivation and the psychological uneasiness associated with it. Doubt is always more or less conscious, but this is not true of belief. That a man may be quite unaware of his belief is illustrated by the Northern reaction to the South's attack upon Fort Sumter. Cf. MS. 598.

597. Reason's Rules (RR)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1902], pp 1-6.
On what reasoning is.

598. Reason's Rules (RR)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1902], pp. 1-10, with 8 pp. of variants.
The initial or present beliefs of the reader. CSP pleads for the adoption of the principle that what is beyond control is beyond criticism or, more simply stated, do not doubt what cannot be doubted. Examples of beliefs which cannot be doubted: beliefs in what is before the eyes, the existence of persons other than oneself, memory. Cf. MS. 596.

599. Reason's Rules (RR)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1902], pp. 4-45, 31-42, and 8 pp. of fragments.
The nature of a sign. Propositions as the significations of signs which represent that some icon is applicable to that which is indicated by an index. The non-existence of propositions: propositions as merely possible. How truth and falsehood relate to propositions. Meaning as the character of a sign. Meaning and value are related: meaning as the value of a word (or the value of something for us is what that something means to us). The reference of meaning to the future.

600. (RR)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1902], 3 loose sheets, numbered 5, 35, and 36.
Critic of criticism.

601. (L)
A. MS., G-undated-13, later than the Minute Logic, but before 1908, pp. 1-33, with g pp. of variants; pp. 10-31, with 7 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 7.49-52 (pp. 1-9). Unpublished: the meaning of "dynamical"; the distinction between relation and relationship; speculations on the survival of the human race and on the possibility of life - similar to human life - on other planets (pp. 10-33). The classification of the sciences, based upon the distinction between theoretical and practical science (pp. 10-31).

602. On Classification of the Sciences (M)
A. MS., n.p., later than the Minute Logic, but before 1908, pp. 1-16.
The general classificatory scheme of the sciences. The threefold nature of inquiry. The normative sciences of esthetics, ethics, and logic. The nature of pratical science.

603. (N)
A. MS., G-undated-13 [1905-06?], pp. 1-47, with 10 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 7.77-78 (pp. 20-29). Unpublished: the place of logic among the sciences; the fact that logic is a theoretical, not practical, science, even in respect to its methodeutic division (pp. 1-19). The relationship between logic and psychology, with CSP's opposition to the "psychological logicians" stated at some length (pp. 30-47).

604. Ch. I. Ways of Life (L)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
Three types of men: men of sentiment (e.g., artists), practical men, and the unselfish seekers after truth.

605. Chapter II. On the Classification of the Sciences (Lii)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-17; plus pp. 1-2 ("Chapter II. The First Division of Science") .
Distinction between theoretical and practical science. The heuretic sciences.

606. Chapter III. The Nature of Logical Inquiry (Liij)
A. MS., n.p., [1905-06?], pp. 1-29, with 2 pp. of variants.
"Maiotic" method of Socrates. The Athenian Schools and the emergence of Aristotle. Why the logical treatises of Aristotle have been called the "Organon." Discussion of the point of view that logic is a practical science, with notes on the history of this point of view. Aristotle's distinction between practical science and art. Methodeutic is not a practical science.

607. Chapter III. The Nature of Logical Inquiry (Liij)
A. MS., n.p., [1905-06?], pp. 1-9.
Aristotle's distinction between practical science and art. However, in spite of Aristotle's well-earned reputation as a philosopher, he has no conception of logic as a unitary study. Utilitarian tendencies in English logicians from Thomas Wilson to John Venn.

608. Chapter III. The Nature of Logical Inquiry (Liii)
A. MS., n.p., [1905-06?], pp. 1-3.
Dedekind and Benjamin Peirce on the relationship between logic and mathematics. Is logic mathematics?

609. Chapter I. What Logic is (Logic)
A. MS., n.p., September 23-28, 1908, pp. 1-23, plus 2 rejected pp.
The need for technical terminology. Local sign (after Lotze's "Lokal-zeichen"). Comparison of Kant and Leibniz as logicians. The first impressions of sense are caused by real external objects. CSP thinks of himself as a Berkeleyian.

610. Logic. Introduction (Logic. Introd.)
A. MS., n.p., October 24 - November 28, 1908, pp. 1-10, plus 4 pp. dated October 22 and 24.
Introductory remarks to a textbook on logic, which will be concerned with both theory and practice. A discussion of literary and philosophical styles.

611. Chapter I. Common Ground (Logic)
A. MS., n.p., October 28-31, 1908, pp. 6-25.
That which is named by a noun is everything that could possibly be said of it. Definition of "nothing" as "that which is indistinct in being." Indefinite descriptions. Logical departures from grammatical usage. The term "phaneron" introduced. The nineteenth-century German logicians.

612. Chapter I. Common Ground (Logic)
A. MS., n.p., November 2-15, 1908, pp. 6-32, 32, 32-38; plus 19 pp. of variants. Phaneron. Definition of "determination." Property of word "after." Meaning as the general name of any sort of sign. Proper names.

613. Logic. Book I. Analysis of Thought. Chapter I. Common Ground. (Logic I.i)
A. MS., n.p., November 16-18, 1908, pp. 1-4.
The basis of common understanding required before an author's mind can act upon his reader's. Moral conduct: conduct that is approved upon reflection.

614. Logic. Book I. Analysis of Thought. Ch. I. Common Ground. (Logic I.i)
A. MS., n.p., November 17-20, 1908, pp. 1-12, 3, 5-6, and variants.
The common ground between author and reader: the English language and the familiar knowledge of the ordinary truths of human life. The exercise of control over our conduct: the most important business of life. The modus operandi of control. Psychology and observation. Not every observation about the human mind is a psychological observation. Remarks on modern science.

615. Logic. Book I. Analysis of Thought. Chapter I. Common Ground. (Logic I.i)
A. MS., n.p., November 28-December 1, 1908, pp. 1-29, with 8 pp. of variants.
Definition of "logic," and the pitfalls encountered on the way to a definition. Derivation of the term "science." For CSP, science refers to the collective and cooperative undertakings of men who have devoted themselves to inquiries of a general kind. Logic depends neither upon any special science nor upon metaphysics. Logic presupposes a number of truths derivable from ordinary experience or observation. These truths, handed down from the prescientific age as common sense, are not the truths of any special science or of science in general. Remarks on classification of the sciences.

616. An Appraisal of the Faculty of Reasoning (Reason)
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 1-11, with a rejected p. 9.
An attempt to answer the query: Assuming the existence on another planet of a race of "high psychical development," would that race be able to reason as man does? Digressions on a defense of instinct and on testing, by means of mathematical examples, the reasoning power of superior minds apparently deficient in mathematical aptitude.

617. (Reason)
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 4-18
Mathematics and reasoning. Enigma: the inability of superior minds to grasp mathematical reasoning. Analysis of logical operations involved in a simple piece of mathematical reasoning. CSP notes which of these logical operations the gifted but unmathematical mind cannot perform. Exact reasoning and common sense. Should accuracy of thought give way to sound instinct and wholesome feeling?

618. Introduction (Meaning Introd.)
A. MS., n.p., March 28-29, 1909, pp. 1-3, incomplete.
This is one of several attempts by CSP in 1909 to write an introduction to a collection of his papers on pragmatism. This introduction defines "science" in terms of what it is that animates the true scientist; namely, the dedicated search for truth for its own sake. CSP rejects both the Aristotelian notion that science is syllogistically demonstrated knowledge and the notion that science is systematized knowledge. Reference to Lady Welby's "significs."

619. Studies in Meaning (Meaning)
A. MS., G-1909-1, March 25-28, pp. 1-14, with 2 rejected pp.
Only the first paragraph published, with minor editorial changes, as 5.358n*. Autobiographical material: persons with whom the Peirce family were acquainted; CSP and his father; CSP's emotional instability; CSP's early interest in chemistry and his discovery of Whately's Logic at the age of 13; the study of Schiller's Aesthetische Briefe, followed by a study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Prolegomena, out of which came CSP's lifelong devotion to the study of logic. Members of the Metaphysical Club.

* 620. Essays Toward the Interpretation of our Thoughts. My Pragmatism (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., G-1909-1, April 6-May 24, 1909, pp. 1-51 (pp. 40-41 missing), with 45 pp. of variants.
Only the first sentence of the "Preface" published (7.313n1). CSP's intellectual autobiography: the Metaphysical Club and the influence of Chauncey Wright and Nicholas St. John Green on his thinking. Abbot, who attended but one meeting of the Metaphysical Club, heard CSP on that occasion arguing in favor of Scholastic realism. Half a generation later, Abbot, in a book entitled "Scientific Theism" urged the same opinion. CSP recalls the occasion of writing the 1877-78 articles for the Popular Science Monthly. Pragmatism and pragmatisism distinguished. The fallibility of human reasoning. Sound reasoning and moral virtue. The plight of university instruction in logic. Whewell and J. S. Mill. Biographical notes on Duns Scotus and Ockham. Realism versus nominalism. Nominalism, concludes CSP, leads to absolute sceptisism. The meaning of "real"; the meaning of "universal."

621. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., May 24-September 1, 1909, pp. 21-36.6, with 2 rejected pp.; plus pp. 37-42.
This manuscript continues p. 20 of MS. 620. The nominalism-realism controversy. Auguste Comte and J. S. Mill.

622. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., May 26-June 3, 1909, pp. 34-70 (p. 50 missing), 42-43, 51, and fragments.
History of logic: Mill's nominalism; individualism as only one particular variety of nominalism; Bolzano's treatise on logic; Boole's logic; Augustus De Morgan; and the logicians, A. B. Kempe and Josiah Royce.

623. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., G-1909-1, June 5-7, 1909, pp. 43-50.
Published, in part, as 1.27 (pp. 48-50). Unpublished: an historical explanation of the popularity of nominalism in CSP's day. The union of humanists and Ockhamists in opposition to the position of Duns Scotus.

624. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., June 7, 1909, pp. 51-56, with a rejected p. 53.
Essence of the method of science lies in hypotheses whose predictions turn into verifications. Mill and the false doctrine of nominalism. Law of the Uniformity of Nature and Mill's attempt to justify it by induction. Doctrine of chances.

625. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., June 12-24, 1909, pp. 51-58, 58-82, incomplete.
Mill and nominalism. What makes nominalism attractive? Mill's contradictory position: he holds with Pearson and Poincare, on the one side, and yet he stands with Whately on induction, on the other side. The Uniformity of Nature Principle. CSP regards inference as possible only because of real connections in re. Characteristics of mathematical reasoning.

626. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., June 12, 1909, pp. 52-56.
Alternate draft of pp. 52-56 of MS. 625.

627. (Meaning Pragmatism)
A. MS., n.p., June 14, 1909, pp. 59-65.
Probable continuation of pp. 51-58 of MS. 625.

628. Studies in the Meanings of our Thought. What is the Aim of Thinking? considered in Two Chapters. Chapter I. The Fixation of Belief (Meaning)
A. MS., n.p., March 1909, pp. 1-2, 2-5.
The aim of reasoning: "to find out, from the consideration of matters and things already known, something else that we had not before known." Good reasoning gives true conclusions from true premises.

629. Studies in the Meanings of Our Thoughts. What is the Aim of Thinking, considered in Two Chapters. Chapter I. The Fixation of Belief (Meaning)
A. MS., n.p., March 1909, pp. 1-2.
The importance of studying logic. Brief comment on the history of instruction in logic.

630. Studies of Meaning (Meaning)
A. MS., n.p., March 22-25, 1909, pp. 1, 3-6; plus an alternative p. 2 and an unnumbered page.
Reference to the Popular Science Monthly articles of 1877-78 and the formulation of a principle called "pragmatism." Disagreement with James who pressed the matter of pragmatism "further than Mr. Peirce, who continues to acknowledge, not the existence, but yet the reality of the Absolute, as set forth, for example, by Royce." The Metaphysical Club and some of its leading members. CSP's intellectual development. The purpose (and the success) of CSP's attempt to master several of the special sciences.

631. Preface (Meaning Preface to the Volume)
A .MS., n.p., August 24, 1909, pp. 1-4 (for p. 5, see MS. 632).
CSP writes of his many undertakings in science, ranging from chemistry to the history of science. He speaks of his own natural powers of mind as "rather below than above mediocrity," but mentions that his three strongest points have been "self-criticism, persistence, and logical analysis."

632. Preface (Meaning Preface to the Book)
A. MS., n.p., August 24-29, 1909, pp. 1-27, plus fragments.
CSP's estimation of his own mental powers. He speaks of having heard "the most extravagant estimates placed upon my mental powers." ". . . my principal deficiency, which is that my brain is small. This renders me incapable of thoroughly grasping together any considerable number of details; and one consequence is that I do not readily pass from one subject, or occupation of thought, to another; whence my persistency." Linguistic expression is not natural to CSP, who claims never to think in words, but always in some kind of diagram. His difficulties with foreign languages. "In college, I received the most humiliating marks for my themes.... My amicable teacher Professor Francis James Child . . . thought I took no pains. But I did." CSP attributes his awkwardness of linguistic expression to his left-handedness, noting that he once wrote with facility right-handed. To grasp what abstract thought is about requires more than reading about doing something - it requires actually doing it. The "literary" habit - CSP's term for it - is ruinous.

633. Preface (Meaning Preface to the volume)
A. MS., n.p., September 4-6, 1909, pp. 1.1-1.8.
Logical and psychological analysis sharply separated, without minimizing the importance of either. Logic does not rest upon psychology, although it is true to say that in the synthetical (methodeutic) part of logic, certain psychological principles ought to be considered. Logic does appeal, however, to mathematics, phenomenology, and esthetics.

634. Preface (Meaning Preface to the Book)
A. MS., n.p., September 8-17, 1909, pp. 1-27, with 3 pp. rejected; plus p. 1 of an earlier draft, dated September 7, 1909.
Criticism of the current psychological approach to logic. Ultimate assurance of the truth of the conclusion of any reasoning is faith in the governance of the universe by an Active Reason. The distinction between object of thought and the object thought about. The real object, unlike the object of thought, is not subject to the modifications of thought. Logic as general semiotic; logic considers signs in general. Relationship among object, sign, interpretant. Signs as substitutes for objects and capable of interpretation through the mind. Nothing is able to represent itself exclusively.

635. (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., September 19 - October 2, 1909, pp. 2-7.7, 8-8 2/3 (p. 8 following p. 7.1), 6-8 (p. 6 following p. 5 of the first sequence).
Logic and psychology. Logic is not concerned with what passes in consciousness, and no person's confidence in an argument is any sure sign of the argument's validity. Doctrine of chances serves to illustrate these points.

636. (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., September 22-30, 1909, pp. 6-31, plus 2 pp. of variants.
Whether there is any reason for absolute faith. Kant's criticism of Aristotle (<ber die falsche Spitzfindigkeit de vier syllogistischen Figuren") is deemed ludicrous. Kant makes validity of inference dependent on the manner in which facts are thought rather than on the facts themselves. The relationship between logic and psychology. The distinction between "assertion" and "urtheil."

637. (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., October 3-13, 1909, pp. 9-36, 27-30, 28-29, 31-36.
Tendency to guess right (but not necessarily on the first guess). Pure logic supports the general assertion that a cautious presumption may be credited if no contrary evidence is available. The discussion of such presumptions is relegated to methodeutic. Criticism of Kant's criticism of Aristotle (Kant's "<ber die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistische Figuren"). Criticism of Sigwart's views that existence is the only form of reality, that any inference from thought to real objects is invalid, and that we know immediately our own thought. Unity of thought as consisting in the continuity of the life of a growing idea. An introduction to CSP's theory of signs which doesn't get beyond the elementary distinctions of the theory. Iconic, indexical, and symbolic signs.

638. (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., October 4-6, 1909, pp. 14-21.
Justification of retroduction. Pure logic encourages inquiry based on hypotheses which we accept on impulse. Practical and scientific retroduction.

639. Essays on Meaning. Preface (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., October 20, [1909], pp. 1-4.
Condemnation of present day logicians. The importance of restoring logic as the foundation of a liberal education (as was the case in medieval times).

640. Essays on Meaning. Preface (Meaning Preface)
A. MS., n.p., October 22-23, 1909, pp. 1-12 (with several other pages fitting into the sequence).
The division of logic into three studies: universal grammar, critic, and methodeutic. Mill's distinction between connotation and denotation discussed. CSP's opposition to the leading schools of logic of his day that tie rationality to human consciousness by regarding human consciousness as the author of rationality. For CSP, there is no distinction more momentous than that between "is" and "would be."

641. Significs and Logic (Significs and Logic)
A. MS., n.p., November 3-18, 1909, pp. 1-24 25/26, plus 4 pp. (November 2-23).
Purpose: analysis of the relations between semeiotic (physiology of signs) and logic (theory of reasoning). Meaning of "argument." Doctrine of chances. Nominalism and realism. The meaning of the word "real." CSP refers to his review of Frazer's edition of Berkeley, in which he took the qualified realist position of Duns Scotus. Here CSP comes out for an unqualified version of realism. CSP regards himself as a disciple of Berkeley, although he is opposed to Berkeley's denial of matter as well as to his nominalism. The distinction between God's reality and God's existence. God's reality, apart from the question of God's existence, canont be doubted by anyone who meditates upon the question. Belief in God is a natural instinct. The nature of God: God is both intelligible and incomprehensible. All atheists are nominalists. Is nominalism consistent? Substance and accident. Indefiniteness: The indefinite is not subject to the principle of contradiction. Modal logic. Analogy between modes of being and modes of meaning. Biographical material: CSP writes of the conferences in Paris of leading geodesists, and he recalls an incident involving Sylvester.

642. Significs and Logic (Significs and Logic)
A. MS., n.p., November 25-28, 1909, pp. 8-25.
This manuscript continues the preceding one. The meaning of "real." The distinction between the externality and internality of fact supported by common sense. Signification of reality compared with externality of fact. Three kinds of modality. The three modes of assertion of law, of actual fast, of freedom. Principle of excluded middle does not apply to assertions of law; principle of contradiction does not apply to assertions of freedom. Both principles apply to assertions of actual fast. Sophistries of nominalism. Some of Locke's views present difficulties for CSP.

643. Studies of Logical Analysis, or Definition (Definition 1st notes)
A. MS., n.p., December 12-13, 1909, pp. 1-7, incomplete.
Purpose: discovery of the methods of dissecting the meaning of a sign. Meanings and chemical substances. The notion of valence, or attachment (the "pegs" of CSP's existential graphs). The difference between various attachments of a concept and the valences of carbon: The attachments are unlike each other; the valences are not qualitatively different. Is it the case that we always think in signs? Signs and ideas.

644. On Definition or The Analysis of Meaning (Definition: 2nd Draught)
A. MS., n.p., December 21, 1909, 1 p.
What it means to say that anything is dependent. What it means to say that any predicate is essentially true. Importance of the notion of "would be" for philosophy.

645. How to Define (Definition: 3rd Draught)
A. MS., n.p., December 22 - January 12, 1910, pp. 1-26, with a variant p. 20.
Three studies distinguished (phaneroscopy, logic, and psychology) and their order of dependence established. Feeling, volition, and thought. In regard to feeling, Hume is in error, for he is committed to the view that vividness is an element of a sensequality. The three modes of separating the elements of a thought-object are precision, dissociation, and discrimination. Volition and purpose. Resemblances as residing in the interpretation of secondary feelings. CSP's essential conservatism. He warns, however, that self-criticism, carried too far, leads to exaggerated distrust.

646. (Definition: 4th Draught)
A. MS., n.p., January 13 - February 13, 1910, pp. 7-58, with 16 pp. of variants.
Syntax of thought. Traditional as opposed to the modern logic of relatives. An inconsistenty noted in Aristotle's conception of a universal proposition. CSP s algebra of logic: Positive and negative terms are distinguished, with "positiveness" defined.

647. Definition (Definition: 5th Draught, or new, or new draught, or new work)
A. MS., n.p., February 16-26, 1910, pp. 1-26, with 22 pp. of variants.
Three grades of clearness of apprehension. Application of the pragmatic maxim to the notion of probability. Laplace's conception of probability. CSP's distinction between fact and occurrence: A fact is as much of the real universe as can be represented in a proposition; an occurrence is a slice of the universe. The failure of both Laplace and Mill to adhere to this distinction. Distinction between sciential probability and ignorantial probability. Laplacean theory of probability confuses the two.

648. Definition
A. MS., n.p., February 27-March 22, 1910, pp. 8-58, 58-60, plus 10 pp. of variants.
Page 8 of this manuscript continues p. 7 of MS. 647, and is a later draft of that manuscript. Laplace's definition of "probability." Distinction between fact and occurrence, with Laplace attributing probability to occurrences rather than facts. Probability and states of mind. Background and history of the nominalist-realist controversy. Key figures in the controversy. Scotists and Ockhamists. Humanism and nominalism. Prantl's ignorance of Scholastic logic, especially in his Geschichte der Logik. The first question to ask of a logician is whether he is a nominalist or a realist. Eleatic doctrines and nominalism. Epicurean theory of induction. The plight of original minds in America.

649. On Definition and Classification (Definition: 6th Draught)
A. MS., G-1910-1, May 27-April 12, 1910, pp. 1-40, with 3 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 1.312 (pp. 12-14). Unpublished: discussion of the three grades of clearness; an analysis of the idea of a straight line; on acquiring useful habits; the bearing of ultimate desires on the art of conduct. CSP notes that man's real self, or true nature, is revealed in how a man would act, not in haste, but after due deliberation. Pleasure and pain are signs of satisfaction and dissatisfaction; they are not the satisfactions and dissatisfactions themselves. Anesthetics and the question whether pain is at all necessary. The theological problem of evil. Faculty psychology and the distinctions among knowing, willing, and feeling.

650. Diversions of Definitions (Essays Definitions)
A. MS., n.p., July 20-August 5, 1910, pp. 1-46, 9-13, 40, 44-45.
Ordinal and cardinal numbers. Cardinal numbers, not partes orationis, but orationes integrae. System of existential graphs. Profundity of medieval Scholasticism. The three parts of the soul, with faculty psychology regarded as substantially true. Feeling (Firstness). Brute-will (Secondness). Reasoning (Thirdness).

651. Essays toward the Full Comprehension of Reasonings (Essays)
A. MS., n.p., July 1910, pp. 1-11, incomplete.
An attempt to devise a plan for the improvement of reasoning, beginning with the distinction between weak arguments and unsound ones. All sound arguments are either necessary or probable. Necessary reasoning is deductive; probable reasoning can be either inductive or retroductive.

652. Essays toward the Full Comprehension of Reasonings (Essays Preface)
A. MS., n.p., July 12-17, 1910, pp. 1-27, 16-19.
Purpose: improving the reader's power of reasoning. Criticism of German logic. Distinction between weak and unsound arguments. Necessary and probable reasoning. Probable reasoning as either inductive or retroductive. The three orders of induction are quantitative, qualitative and crude (simple enumeration). Qualitative induction mistaken for retroduction. Brief comments on the history of astronomy. CSP regards Kepler's investigation of the motions of the planets as the greatest feat of inductive reasoning ever accomplished. Fallibilism and the propositions of mathematics, logic, and ethics; fallibilism and common sense.

653. Exercises in Definition, or Analysis of Concepts (Essays and Concept Analysis)
A. MS., n.p., July 20, 1910, 1 p.

654. Essays (Essays 1st Pref.)
A. MS., n.p., August 17-19, 1910, pp. 1-7, 2-3.
Note: This manuscript was meant to serve as a "Preface," with MS. 632 serving as the "Introduction." Comments on Arnauld's L'art de penser and on the Port Royal Logic. All reasoning consists in interpreting signs; all thought is in signs. System of existential graphs: the simplest system capable of expressing exactly every possible assertion. Definition of "sign."

655. Quest of Quest (QQ)
A. MS., n.p., August 26-September 7, 1910, pp. 1-37.
An inquiry into the question of what makes inquiry successful. On terminology. Requirements for studying philosophy are mastery of Euclid's Elements and mastery of common Greek, medieval Latin, English and German. Definition of "science." The distinction between descriptive and explanatory science. The classification of the sciences. The division of the theoretical sciences into mathematics, philosophy, and idioscopy; the division of philosophy into phaneroscopy, normative science, and metaphysics. Truth and reality. Similarity of CSP's and James's viewpoints accounted for by the common acceptance of cognitionism, a position which derives from their teacher Chauncey Wright. But CSP questions James on the notion of the satisfactory. Remarks by CSP on his special talent and what it is that motivates him.

656. (Q/Q)
A. MS., n.p., September 9-10, 1910, pp. 1-7.
Note: Q/Q is the first revision of QQ (MS. 655). Terminological questions in connection with science and philosophy. The importance of definition for both philosophy and mathematics.

657. Preface (QQ Preface)
A. MS., n.p., September 16, 1910, pp. 1-6.
The author of a new book ought to give an account of himself. CSP writes of the size of his brain "a triffe under" average and his belief that it is unusually convoluted. He acknowledges that he is "ill adapted" for the everyday world, strong in whatever is abstract but lacking in everyday gumption.

658. The Ground Plan of Reason (G)
A. MS., n.p., October 1-3, 1910, pp. 1-6.
Man shares with the lower animals the capacity to feel. How, then, shall we describe feeling? The question is left unanswered.

659. The Rationale of Reason (G')
A. MS., n.p., October 7-22, 1910, pp. 1-41.
Feeling and effort. Faculty psychology and the division of the soul into three parts: feeling, volition, and cognition. Meaning of "faculty" as habitual possibility. Meaning of "person" as any animal that has command of some syntactical language. Problems of terminology. The law of time. Meaning of "real. "

660. On the Foundation of Ampliative Reasoning (AR)
A. MS., n.p., October 24-28, 1910, pp. 1-23, incomplete.
Explicative and ampliative reasoning. Laplace and Mill on induction. Distinction between uniformity (what does happen) and law (what was compelled to happen). Criticism of Laplace's treatment of probability. CSP's views correspond to those of Venn, but derived independently. The notion of "equally possible." (Cf. "objective probability" in Venn, Logic of Chance, 1866.) CSP gives 1864 as the year he arrived at his conception of probability.

661. (AR1)
A. MS., n.p., November 3-13, 1910, pp. 11-15.2, 15-19, 15-111, 110-111, 112-114.
What it means to say that all explicative reasoning is necessary and all necessary reasoning explicative. Logical critic and comments on the Aristotelian logic. Fallibilism and propositions about the meanings of words.

662. (ARM)
A. MS., n.p., November 14-17, 1910, pp. 1-12, 4-7.
Mathematical reasoning illustrated.

663. The Rationale of Reasoning (ARN)
A. MS., n.p., November 17-19g, 1910, pp. 1-17, incomplete; plus p. l of another start.
'The need for stricter rules of nomenclature. Meaning of the word "real." The three modes of reality are would-be's, existents, and can-be's. Berkeley's confusion of "being perceived" with "capable of being perceived." Tendency as denoting a real would-be.

664. The Rationale of Reasoning (AR)
A. MS., n.p., November 22-30, 1910, pp. 1-21, with 7 pp. of variants.
Problems of terminology. Definitions of "breadth" and "depth," both of which presuppose the definition of "proposition." Proposition and assertion. Positive truth and reality. Kant's distinction between knowledge drawn from experience and knowledge that begins in experience. Verbal knowledge.

665. The Rationale of Reasoning (AR)
A. MS., n.p., December 2-3, 1910, pp. 1-5, incomplete.
Conjunction. The origin of the term "premiss," with a reference to Sir James Murray's article in the Oxford Dictionary.

666. (AR)
A. MS., n.p., December 2-3, 1910, pp. 2-3, 5-6.
Earlier draft of MS. 665.

667. The Rationale of Reasoning (AR)
A. MS., n.p., December 8-12, 1910, pp. 1-11, with 3 pp. of variants.
Meaning of "reasoning," with reasoning regarded as essentially an interpretation of signs. Common sense and the soundness of reasoning. Meaning of "knowledge." Nature of probability.

668. (AR)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-18, 20 (possibly of another draft).
Inference and reasoning. Whether any judgment can be absolutely certain. Degrees of belief. Descartes' "Cogito ergo sum." A digression on the failure of people of wealth to support the science of reasoning.

669. Assurance Through Reasoning (A Thr R)
A. MS., n.p., May 25-June 2, 1911, pp. 1-22, with 2 pp. of variants.
Necessary and probable deduction. Existential graphs: syntax and permissions.

670. Assurance Through Reasoning (A Thru R)
A. MS., n.p., June 7-17, 1911, pp. 1-32, with 4 pp. of variants.
Necessary and probable deduction. Syntax of existential graphs. Essential nature of a sign.

671. First Introduction
A. MS., n.p., [c.1911], pp. 1-20; 4-13 of another draft.
The powers of the mind are feeling, causing an action, taking on and abandoning habits. Habit explained in terms of the reality of a general fact about possible conduct; that is, in terms of the reality of would-be's. CSP lists philosophers who are opposed to his realism. Negation and contradiction.

672. Second Essay. On the Essence of Reasoning and its Chief Varieties (II)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1911], pp. 1-6.
These pages were to supersede the 6th article of the Popular Science Monthly series of 1878, of which the first two articles were to appear as Part I and Part II of the "First Essay." These pages concern the false dichotomy of reason and instinct as well as the question whether animals reason. CSP thinks animals do reason, and offers two illustrations.

673. A Sketch of Logical Critic
A. MS., G-c.1911-1, pp. 1-47, with 16 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 6.177-184 (pp. 21-44). Omitted: an explanation of logical critic and a definition of "reasoning." The parallel between the exercise of logical self-criticism and the exercise of moral self-criticism. Logical instinct. The triad of normative sciences. The dependence of logic upon ethics, and both upon esthetics. How habits are created. Comte's classification of the sciences. CSP's threefold division of the sciences: heuretic, tagmatic, and practical.

674. A Sketch of Logical Critic
A. MS., n.p., [c.1911], pp. 1-15, with 6 pp. of variants.
On "criticism." Liberal education. Law of habit: CSP's hypothesis, held since 1880, that the law of habit in conjunction with events absolutely uncaused (except by a creative act of God) is all that is required to explain the universe in all its details.

675. A Sketch of Logical Critic
A. MS., n.p., [c.1911], pp. 1-28, 12-20, and 30 pp. of variants.
"Logical critic" explained. Syllogistic recollection; unthought thought, belief and reality; belief as essentially a satisfaction, but not necessarily pleasant. The classification of the sciences and the place of logical critic among the sciences. The normative sciences; esthetics; logic as the science of symbols. The doctrine of signs and the division of signs into icons, indices, and symbols.

676. A Sketch of Logical Critics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1911], pp. 1 -6.
The meaning of "critics" and "logical critics." Definition of "sign."

677. A Sketch of Logical Critic
A. MS., n.p., [C.1911], pp. 1-5, plus 2 pp. of two other attempts to begin the essay.
Explanation of "critic." Art and science. The classification of the sciences.

678. The Art of Reasoning Elucidated
A. MS., n.p., "late in 1910" (p. 26), pp. 1-29, 14-35, with 2 pp. of variants.
Proposal to accomplish seven things in this essay, ranging from a discussion of the different kinds of reasoning to an application of reasoning to the pressing problems of the day. Love of truth as a prerequisite for reasoning well; lover of truth versus lover of knowledge; the three passions for wide knowledge, deep knowledge, and accurate knowledge equated with love of learning, love of knowledge, and love of scientific economy (pp. 1-29). Method of reasoning as man's (as opposed to woman's) way to truth; thinking as "talking" with oneself; the principles of contradiction and excluded middle; real and ratiocinative modality (pp. 14-35).

679. The Art of Reasoning Elucidated
A. MS., n.p., [1910], pp. 1-12, unfinished, with a variant p. 11.
An earlier draft of MS. 678. CSP proposes to do seven things in this essay, but the essay breaks off at this point.

680. Analysis of the Trustworthiness of the Different Kinds of Reasonings
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 1-26, incomplete, with 18 pp. of variants.
Essay is directed toward boys between the ages of twelve and eighteen who think. The mind-body distinction. The three classes of psychical, physical, and psychophysical. The three elements in all psychical phenomena. Analysis of the state of awareness in terms of its three ingredients. Consciousness of contrast and awareness of change. Triadic distinction of actual fast, may be, and would be. History of the principles of contradiction and excluded middle. Reality of can-be's and would-be's as well as actual facts and existing things. Would-be's related to dispositions and habits.

681. A Study of How to Reason Safely and Efficiently
A. MS., n.p., 1913, pp. 1-47, with a variant p. 7.
Reasoning and sensation. Mixed and unmixed sensations. Esthetic quality attached to reasoning well. The notion of "elegance" in mathematics. Volition and attention. Awareness of acquiring a habit is the third mode of consciousness. What "habit" means. Reasoning as the process of consciously acquiring a belief from previous ones. In defense of trichotomists. CSP records that he does not know and has never inquired whether there is any connection between his own trichotomy and the Divine Trinity, but maintains there is nothing mysterious about his trichotomy. What "real" means. Long footnote on Prantl's Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande.

682. An Essay toward Improving Our Reasoning in Security and in Uberty
A. MS., n.p., [c.1913], pp. 1-53, with 10 pp. of variants.
Defense of final causes. Ratiocination and instinct. CSP is guided by the following maxim: Define all mental characters as far as possible in terms of their outward manifestations. This maxim is roughly equivalent to the rule of pragmatism. It can be said to aid security but not uberty of reasoning. "Yet the maxim of Pragmatism does not bestow a single smile upon beauty, upon moral virtue, or upon abstract truth, the three things that alone raise Humanity above Animality." The science of psychology is of no help in laying the foundations of a sane philosophy of reasoning, and precisely why CSP believes this to be so.

683. [An Essay toward Improving Our Reasoning in Security and in Uberty]
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 4-38, 12-28, and 16 pp. of variants.
Another version of MS. 682. Mathematical and necessary reasoning. Preference for the word "uberty" over "fruitfulness." The necessity for technical terminology. CSP's ignorance of esthetics, with Schiller's Aesthetische Briefe mentioned as the only book he has read on the subject. But CSP writes of his keen but uncultivated sense of beauty. To illustrate this, he notes works of literature he admires. He also notes that there is little of the artist in him, his own literary style testifying to that. The history of scientific investigation of the problems of ethics. Sir Edward Herbert, Hobbes, Cumberland. The meaning of the word "real." Modalities.

684. A Study of Reasoning in its Security and its Uberty
A. MS., n.p., August 26-31, 1913, pp. 1-13 (p. 8 missing), with 6 pp. of variants.
CSP planned to send copies to Royce, Dewey, Whitehead, and "even to the supercilious Bradley." Reasoning as a branch of endeavor, with an explanation of what is meant by "branch." A long digression on astronomy.

685. The Art of Reasoning Regarded from the Point of View of A. D. 1913. Book I. The Foundations of the Art. Introduction.
A. MS., n.p., 1913, pp. 1-29 (continuous in spite of two p. 28s).
Mathematics is a prerequisite for the study of logic. History of mathematics, especially counting. The notion of "elegance," with true elegance regarded as a variety of economy. The duties and methods of the historian. Was Boethius the author of the geometry and the theological metaphysics attributed to him?

686. Reflexions upon Reasoning
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 1-9, with a variant p. 7.
"Reality," "state of things," "actuality," and "reasoning" defined. Reality is that aspect of the being of anything which is independent of the thing's being represented. The trustworthiness of immediate knowledge (sense perception) testifies only to this or that single state of things. Reasoning testifies to the truth that lies beyond our ken. CSP wonders what the eternal habits are, beyond those which involve the tridimensionality of space and the general mutability of time. Satisfactory and unsatisfactory feelings.

PRACTICAL LOGIC, NOTES, FRAGMENTS

687. Guessing (guessing)
A. MS., G-c.1907-2, pp. 1-35; plus pp. 2-16 of an earlier draft and 3 pp. of variants.
Published, with deletions, as 7.36-48. The manuscript was published in The Hound and Horn 2 (April-June, 1929) 267-282. Omitted from Collected Papers were pp. 8-22 (for a partial description of which see 7.40n15) and pp. 32-33 (the completion of a personal anecdote). Nature of pure science: questions of pure science handled differently from practical questions. For practical matters cultivate instincts! (Anecdote told in support of this advice.) Decimal and secundal systems of enumeration.

688. Guessing

A. MS., G-c.1907-2, pp. 1-22 (pp. 3-9; 16-18 missing); plus pp. 1-2 (rejected) of another start.
Only the first two sentences of p. 1 published: 7.36n13. This is apparently an earlier draft of MS. 690. Moreover it appears that pp. 3-9 were lifted from here and incorporated in MS. 690. This is not the case, however, with pp. 16-18, which are still missing. Personal anecdote (same as in MS. 687).

689. Surmises About Guessing (Guesses)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
CSP gets only as far as introducing himself to his reader.

690. On the Logic of drawing History from Ancient Documents especially from Testimonies (Logic of History)
A. MS., G-1901-4, pp. 1-263 (continuous although there are no pp. 35, 137, 191), variant p. 15, a typed copy (with marginal corrections by CSP) and a lengthy (6 pp.) "Note on Collections" inserted at p. 52.
Published as 7.164-255, with the exception of 7.182n7, which is from the Lowell Lectures of 1903 (Lecture VIII), and 7.220n18, which is from MS. 691.

691. On the Logic of drawing History from Ancient Documents especially from Testimonies (Logic of History)
A. MS., G-1901-4, 221 pp., fragmentary, with pp. running as high as p. 238. Published, in part, as 7.220n18 (pp. 93-95, with one deletion). CSP added following note: "These pages are to be used in the chapter of the Logic treating Deductive Reasoning. But the theory needs completion." See MS. 1344 for what appears to be an abstract of this logic.

692. The Proper Treatment of Hypotheses: a Preliminary Chapter, toward an Examination of Hume's Argument against Miracles, in its Logic and in its History (Hist. Test.)
A. MS., n.p., 1901, pp. 1-38, 29-40, and 13 pp. of variants.
Opposition to the dualism of reason and instinct. Dogs can reason on occasions, with an example from CSP's experience. Rudimentary sense of logic (logica utens) and the sophisticated sense of logic (logica docens). Attack on modern books on logic. Precepts and hypotheses. The three stages in the life of a hypothesis, each stage governed by entirely different logical principles. Abduction, deduction, and induction.

* 693. Reason's Conscience: A Practical Treatise on the Theory of Discovery; Wherein logic is conceived as Semeiotic
A. MS., six notebooks, n.p., n.d., pp. 2-442 (even numbers mostly, but text is consecutive), including a rewritten section.
Notebook I (pp. 2-80). Purpose of book: improving the reasoning power of students. Pedagogy. Reason and instinct. Interrelations of the branches of science; ladder of the sciences, beginning with the science of discovery and ending with practical science. Notebook II (pp. 82-164). Continues the discussion of the branches of science begun in Notebook I, concentrating on phenomenology, normative science, metaphysics, general physics, and general psychology. The dependence of logic upon the other normative sciences and upon phenomenology and mathematics. The relationship of logic to metaphysics and to psychology. Sound reasoning leads to the maximum of expectation and the minimum of surprise. Notebook III (pp. 166-248). Continues the discussion of sound reasoning specifically and the relationship between logic and psychology generally. The laws of thought. Language and linguistics. The ontological argument. Mathematics and logic; the teaching of mathematics; instructions for understanding Euclidean geometry. Note-book IV (pp. 250-322). Continuation of the instructions for understanding Euclid. Discussion of existential graphs, with a note by CSP that this discussion was rewritten in Notebook V. Notebook V (pp. 278-370). The nature of mathematics. The manner in which two branches of science may support each other. CSP's speculations on the possibility of a phenomenology of esthetics, an esthetics of ethics, an ethics of logic, etc. Notebook VI (pp. 372-442). Continuation of the discussion of the usefulness of one science to another. The descriptive and classificatory sciences. The problem of knowledge: perceptual knowledge; individuality and classes; unity, singularity, and individuality distinguished; expectations.

694. The Rules of Right Reasoning (Rules of RR or RRR)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
Introductory. Study of the right methods of reasoning has occupied CSP for forty-five years. Notes deficiencies as a writer. His hopes of writing a great work on logic have given way to his hope of writing a shorter, less perfect version. CSP offers his plan of simplification.

695. A Practical Treatise on Logic and Methodology
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 18 pp. of several attempts, none of which go beyond a few pages.
Purpose: establishing maxims for estimating validity and strength of arguments. Explanation of the use of the terms "logic" and "methodology." The function of reason. Genuine doubt and genuine investigation.

696. Practical Maxims of Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 27 pp., of which 4 pp. are in Zina Fay Peirce’s hand.
Deduction, induction, and hypothesis as practical considerations. Beware of the syllogism: everything can be explained, with the syllogism merely making our knowledge more distinct. With regard to the ontological argument, every definition implies existence of its object. Random sampling.

697. Lessons on Practical Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Concerning the definition of "logic." The investigation of consequences constitutes logic, with material and formal consequences distinguished. Suggestions of possible topics for a course in practical logic.

698. [Maxims of Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-3, 5.
Maxim III: "The object of reasoning is to settle questions." Maxim IV: "Things are not just as we choose to think them."

699. [Logical and Mathematical Exercises]
A. MS. and TS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.
Illustrations of logical doctrine.

700. [Quiz]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

701. [Logical Puzzles]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

702 [Logical Exercises]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

703. Note (Notes on Art. III)
A. MS., G-1910-2, August 11-15, pp. 1-30 (with p. 5 missing); 6, 8-10 of another draft; and pp. 1-2 ("Notes to CSP's Third Paper in the Pop. Sci. Monthly, 1878, March").
Published in entirety as 2.661-668 and as 2.645n1. Article III refers to the third in the Popular Science Monthly series of 1877-78.

704. Notes to be added to C. S. Peirce’s Third Article in Pop. Sc. Monthly (Notes No III)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3.
This is a footnote to be inserted on p. 604, line 3, after the word "evident." General laws in chemistry; Vant Hoff's general law of mass-action.

705. Notes on the List of Postulates of Dr. Huntington's #2 (On Postulates)
A. MS., G-c.1904-1, pp. 1-11, 10-12, 10-11.
Published as 4.324-330 (pp. 1-11).

706. [The Concept of Probability]
A. MS., n.p., January 23-31, 1909, pp. 1-31, with 3 pp. of variants.
Remarks on the history of the concept of probability, noting incidentally that the Greeks had no idea of such a concept. Pascal's method of treating probability. Science is raised to a higher level by the "Doctrine of Chances."

* 707. Note to Sylvester's Papers Vol. I p. 92
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet.
System of dyadic monosynthemes of the 6th order.

708. Reply to Mr. Kempe (K)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-9, 5-7, and 5 pp. of another draft.
This is a reply to a short article in the Monist of 1897 by A. B. Kempe, which was itself, in part at least, a reply to CSP's article in the Monist (January 1897). See 3.468.

709. Note on Kempe's Paper in Vol. XXI of the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp 1-6, plus 3 pp.
See MSS. 710-714 for further discussion of Kempe's paper.

710. Notes on Kempe's Paper
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, plus 7 pp.

711 . Notes on Kempe's Paper
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

712. (Kempe)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

713. (Kempe)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
In praise of Kempe's mathematical powers and native instinct for doing logic, but critical of "his sad want of training" in logic. Specific criticism noted.

714. Notes on Kempe's Paper on Mathematical Forms
A. MS., n.p., January 15, 1889, 12 pp.

715. Kempe Translated into English
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

716. [Fragment on Thirdness and Generality]
A. MS., G-c.1895-3, 3 pp.
Published in entirety as 1.340-342.

*717 Chapter II. The Categories
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp. (text is consecutive); plus 24 pp. (fragmentary).
Probably from the period of the Grand Logic. Assertions about systems of more than three subjects can be reduced to triadic assertions at most. The whole endeavor to deny the irreducibility of triadic facts is termed "nominalism." The realism-nominalism controversy. Nature of signs. Categoriology. Continuity and continuous series.

718. [On Continuous Series]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
An attempt to show that the whole series of numbers, rational and irrational, does not constitute a continuous series.

719. Chapter I. Certain Fundamental Conceptions
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Use of term(s) ens (entia). Recourse to Scholastic usage. The first two principles of logic: (1) something or other is true of every ens, and (2) for everything which is true of an ens, something must be true of a pair of entia of which that is one.

720. Logic. Chapter I.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.
The end of logic is to form a table of categories. Proper method of deducing the categories. Qualities, relations, representations distinguished.

721. Chapter I. One, Two, Three
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, plus 7 pp.
Logic begins with the analysis of the meaning of certain words of which the first is "is" (copula). Ens (entia) in Scholasticism. CSP then turns to the conceptions of one, two, and three before tackling the conception of independent being, but he gets only as far as a consideration of quality.

722. Chapter I. Fundamental Notions
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Ens (entia) given the foremost place among logical terms. Its Scholastic usage.

723. A System of Logic. Chapter I. Syllogism
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.
The historic origin of logic is the desire to test inferences. One should begin the study of logic with the syllogism; terms and propositions should be studied afterwards. Remarks on Aristotle's definition of "logic" and on Duns Scotus' views of logic.

724. Logic. Chapter I. Terms
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. and 2 pp. of an earlier draft.
Representations, symbols, and logic. Two terms are related to each other with regard to extension, comprehension, and implication.

725. On Logical Extension and Comprehension
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
CSP comments on his own article of November 13, 1867 (G-1867-1e) and adds a 6th section entitled "Of Natural Classification," an attempt to say precisely what a natural class is.

726. An Unpsychological View of Logic to which are appended some applications of the theory to Psychology and other subjects
A. MS., n.p., [1865?], 76 pp.
An early work primarily on the intension and extension of terms which was superseded by "Upon Logical Comprehension and Extension" (G-1867-1e). Definition of "logic." Connotation, denotation, and information. The relationship of comprehension, extension, and implication summed up in the formula: Extension x comprehension = implication. Forms of induction and hypothesis.

727. [Notes on Intension and Extension]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

728. Chapter 2. First Division of Symbols in Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Logic is a classificatory science. Its study should be preceded by a study of the science of classification.

729. Chapter II.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Logic as a classificatory science. Kinds of representation.

730. Logic. Chapter 3.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Symbols regarded as terms, propositions, and arguments.

731. Chapter II. Extension, Comprehension, Implication
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp., plus 4 pp. of an earlier attempt.

732. lntroduction
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-16.
Impressions; precision, discrimination, dissociation; substance; accident; Being; quality, relation, representation; ground, correlate, interpretant; formal objects. A note concerning a nameless philosopher of the 12th century appears on the verso of one of the pages.

733. Logic. Chapter I
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Every conception is a hypothesis (supposition). Abstraction as separation in conception as opposed to separation in fact and in imagination. Conception of Being: Being distinguished from Dasein.

734. Logic. Chapter 2. Formal Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 53 pp.
Explanation of some of the basic terms of formal logic. The objects of logic are symbols; the business of logic is the classification of symbols. Logic itself is a symbol. Symbols: terms, propositions, and arguments. The syllogism.

735. Logic. The Theory of Reasoning. Part I. Exact Logic. Introduction. What is Logic (EL) A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, 1-5, 1-13, with a title page and a table of contents. Logic is the theory of reasoning and, as such, it is not a branch of psychology (pp. 1-2). Reasoning and common sense (reasoning from the initial propositions of common sense); the relationship between hope and truth (pp. 1-5). A sect of philosophy concerned with deducing the rules of reasoning by mathematics (the achievements of this sect include CSP's contribution of the logic of continuity); Mill's logic; Sigwart and Kant; Hegel's importance to German philosophy; reasoning and signs (pp. 1-13).

736. Qualitative Logic
A. MS., G-undated-11 [1893?], 1 p. (table of contents); pp. 1-11 (preface); pp. 1-10, 2-4, 1-8 ("Chapter I. The Association of Ideas"); pp. 1-6, 1-3 ("Chapter II. The Simple Consequences"); pp. 1-11, 1-8, and a variant p. 6 ("Chapter III. The Modus Ponens"); pp. 1-48, with 24 pp. of variants ("Chapter IV. The Syllogism" and "The Traditional Syllogistic"); pp. 1-8 ("Chapter V. The Dilemma"); pp. 1-5 ("Chapter V. Dilemmatic Reasoning"); pp. 1-6, 1-2 ("Chapter VI. Logical Extension and Comprehension"); pp. 1-22, with 60 pp. of variants ("Chapter VI. The Logical Algebra of Boole"); 1 p. ("Chapter VI. Logical Algebra and Logic of Relatives"); plus 35 pp. of fragments.
Published, in part, as 7.451-457 (Chapter 1, pp. 1-10) and 7.458-462 (Chapter II, pp. 1-5).

737. Memoir #4. Algebra of Copula
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.

738. [On the Quantified Predicate]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
CSP rejects the thesis that the copula of a proposition expresses primarily the identity relation, noting arguments in its favor, especially Hamilton's.

*739. [Thought and Feeling]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 30-32.
These pages may be part of a proposed book in logic. Division of the operations of the understanding into simple apprehension, judgment, and reasoning. Distinction between objective and subjective intensity of feeling. Combination of feelings which, in some cases, is strongly suggestive of thought.

740. Appendix No. 2
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 43 pp.
The hypothetic and sensational character of simple conceptions: The Kantian position on space and time is analyzed. Difference in time is a quantitative, continuous, commutative ground of disquiparance; difference in space is a quantitative, continuous, noncommutative ground of disquiparance.

741. [Sheets from a Notebook on Logic]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1860-c.1867], 75 pp.
It is possible to distinguish the following: "On the Figures and Moods of Logic" (c.1860): induction as the middle road between a priori and a posteriori reasoning; the figures of the different kinds of inferences (7 pp. of an early draft of a work on the Aristotelian syllogism). "Induction": Aristotle's views on induction; objection to Hamilton's "logical" induction; the denotation of subjects and the connotation of predicates (Sept. 1864, 2 pp.). "Consideration of the 3rd Argument in favor of the [quantification of the] predicate" (1867, 1 p.). "On the Conversion of Quantity" (c.1867, 2 pp.). "Further Arguments for a Quantified Predicate considered" (c.1867, 1 p.). "Analogy between Logic and Algebra" (c.1865, 1 p.). "Problem. To apply algebra to logic": a numerical interpretation of Boolean concepts, e.g., a + b = 2 S a and b are two facts (c.1866, 4 pp.). "Propositions of Disquiparance" (c.1866, 2 pp.). "Doctrine of Conversion" (C.1860, 4 pp.). "Quality is the only Quantity belonging to the Predicate": the distinction between extension and intension (c.1866, 2 pp. and 4 pp.). "Extension, Intension, etc." (c.1867, 8 pp.). "The Course of Expression": the concrete expression of an idea requires a mode of presentation (c.1867, 2 pp.). "Quantity of the Figures" (c.1867, 2 pp.). "Notation: Considerations of the Advantages of Sir W. H.'s Analytic intended to show that mine has the same" (c.1867, 4 pp.). "Associative Principle" (c.1867, 11 pp., of which seven are in the hand of Zina Fay Peirce). The remainder are fragments and include, among other topics, notes on the syllogism and on the relation of extension, intension, and information.

742. Preliminary Sketch of Logic
A. MS., small notebook, n.p., [c.1865].
Argument; leading principle; copula; term.

743. The Rules of Logic logically Deduced
A. MS., n.p., June 23, 1860, 8 pp.
Propositions collate conceptions. Collation is comparison, and a conclusion is a comparison drawn from two comparisons. Problematical, apodictic, and assertive propositions. The application of geometry to logical doctrines.

744. Of the Distinction between a priori and a posteriori
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp., plus a folded page with the title: "Distinction between a priori and a posteriori."
Arguments in the first, second, and third figures are respectively a priori, a posteriori, and inductive. Table showing logical character of every mood. Logically a priori conclusions are universal, affirmative, categorical, apodictic. Logically inductive conclusions are particular, infinite, hypothetical, assertorial. Logically a posteriori conclusions are singular, negative, disjunctive, problematical .

745. [Plan for Sixty Lectures on Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-25, with 17 pp. of other attempts to state the substance of the lectures.
Brief descriptions of the subjects of each lecture. The subject matter ranges widely from the physiological and psychological bases of logic (first lecture) to anthropomorphic science, physiognomy, art, and natural theology (sixtieth lecture).

746. [Introductory Remarks to a Course in Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.
Historical notes on Aristotle and the Stoics. CSP attempts to answer the question: Is logic a science? His conclusion is that logic is the science that analyzes method.

747. [Fragments on Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 46 pp.
These fragments may belong to the Johns Hopkins period. Among the 46 pp. are 7 pp. on the logic of relatives, one page of which reads: "Chapter IV. The Logic of Plural Relatives." The remaining pages concern the derivation of the word "logic," kinds of inferences, statistical deductions, probability.

*748. Logic: and the Methods of Science. Book I. Formal Logic. Chapter I. The Modus Ponens TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2 and 14 pp. of several drafts.

748a. Logic. Chapter I. Of thinking as Cerebration
TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., pp. 1, 1-7, 1-9, 1-2, 3, 3-6.

748b. [Outline and First Chapter of a Book on Probability]
TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., 1 p. ("Plan and Object of this Work"), 1 p. ("Table of Contents"), pp. 1-8 ("Part I. Descriptions. Chapter I. The Question in Probability").

748c. [Draft of "The Observational Element in Mathematics"]
TS., n.p., n.d., pp. 4-5 and 3 unnumbered pages.

748d. The Settlement of Opinion
TS., n.p., n.d., pp. 9-10, variant of 5.377.

749. [What logic is]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
Is logic a science or an art? Does logic have a practical aim? If so, what is that aim? The various schools of logic (transcendental, seientific, etc.).

750. Logic I.
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, incomplete.
The essence of the distinction between good and bad reasoning does not lie, as Sigwart believes, in a difference of feeling. It is a matter of fact.

751. [Lecture on Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
Part of a lecture series. The independence of logic from psychology. Logic and artificial languages. Deduction, induction, and retroduction.

752. [Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., March 15, 1914, 3 pp. and 1 p.
One of the last of CSP's manuscripts, it deals with the three orders of reasoning (deduction, induction, and retroduction) and with the limits of CSP's confidence in science.

753. [Reasoning] A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 3-7 and a variant p. 5.
Draft of G-1907-1. Presumably for a lecture on the three kinds of reasoning. Examples of induction. Lutoslawski's and CSP's researches on Plato.

754. Second Talk to the Phil. Club [and] Second Talk. On Deduction
A. MS., n.p., April 12, 1907, 2 folded sheets.
On the three kinds of reasoning (deduction, induction, retroduction). Method for the discovery of methods. Corollarial reasoning. Hypotheses of pure mathematics. The adventitious character of CSP's logical gift.

755. [On the Three Kinds of Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-19, 9-23, with variants.
Drafts of beginning of CSP's "Little Book on Religion," c.1911: natural gift of understanding, common sense and self-deception, belief and conduct.

756. Retroduction (Retr)
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 1-9, 1-5.
The three kinds or stages of inquiry illustrated.

757. What is Reasoning
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 14 pp.; plus 2 copies of 2 pp. each (not in CSP's hand) and a TS. of 7 pp. An elementary exposition of necessary and probable reasoning.

758. (Aristotle 9, Aristotle 10)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp., incomplete.
A lecture on inference, with all elementary inferences divided into three classes. Is the division into three classes natural?
759. (B)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3.
On the modes of necessary inference.

760. [Necessary Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

761. Examples of Probable Reasoning
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Possibly a test question. The reader is asked to draw a conclusion (probable) from a set of four facts presented to him.

762. [Plan for a Work on Probability]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p. (plan); 1 p. of what may be the start of the proposed work; pp. 7-15 (not in CSP's hand).

763. The Doctrine of Chances
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3; 1-2 (New).
Introductory comments only. Ancient inquiries into the nature of probability.

* 764. [Probability and Induction]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 99 pp.
The topics of these fragments range widely from CSP's comment on his habit of thinking in the syntax of existential graphs to discussions of probability, orders of induction (crude, quantitative, qualitative), the divisions of deduction as corollarial and theorematic; introduction of the term "adduction," with a note that the adductions of Socrates were of a crude order. Also notes on the history of logic (Aristotle, Bacon, English logicians) and reflections on the meaning of "pragmatism," and its connection with signs and habits. In regard to the origins of the word "pragmatism," CSP writes: "It was about 1870 - I don't think it could have been as late as 1872 - that I invented the word...."

765. Lecture II
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet.
On the theory of induction. Hamilton and Mansel. Aristotle's notion of induction .

766. Synopsis of the Discussion of the Ground of Induction (S)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, incomplete.
Criticism of the view that the probability of inductive conclusions is calculated by inverse probabilities. CSP takes the position that "in inductive reasoning the fact stated in the conclusion does not follow from the facts stated in the premises with any definite probability, but that from the manner in which the facts stated in the premises have come to our knowledge it follows that in assigning to a certain ratio of frequency the value concluded we shall be following a rule of conduct which must operate to our advantage in the long run."
767. [Fragments on Induction and Abduction]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

768. Statistical Deduction
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

769. Logic of Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 24 pp. of several starts.
Definition of "logic." Marks of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd orders. The mark of representation is of the 3rd order.

770. The Logic of Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6, with variants.
The meaning of "logic of science." Absurdity of a common sense logic, with accompanying remarks on common sense in general. Intimate connection between reasoning and morality. On the richness of various languages, with special praise for Greek.

771. Essays on the Rationale of Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3; 1-3; 1-3, and a variant p. 2 and an unnumbered page. Autobiographical note concerning the publication of the Popular Science articles of 1877-78.

772. [Physical Laws]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873], pp- 2-7.
Draft of N-1873-1. Scientific theories and inductive processes. The way in which physicists provide definitions in terms of mass, space, and time. Law of nature is a general relation connecting measures of different quantities.

773. Third Lecture on Methodeutic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet.
CSP opens his lecture with an apology for the lecture of the previous evening and with a proof he failed to provide on that occasion. Theoric deduction as creative (its object is not an existing thing, but an ens rationis which is just as real). Object and interpretant of a sign. Three grades of induction.

774. Ideas, Stray or Stolen, about scientific writing. No. 1 (Rh. Sc.)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-16.
Semeiotics. Speculative rhetoric. A universal art of rhetoric acknowledged as an ens in posse, Ordinary rhetoric should be modified by way of special studies. These studies yield the various rhetorics of fine arts, speech and language, science. The rhetoric of science is subdivided into rhetorics of communication of discoveries, scientific digests, and applications of science for special purposes.

775. Jottings on the Language of Science. No. 1 or Ideas, stray or stolen, about scientific writing. No. 1 (Rh. Sc.)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-14.
Earlier draft of MS. 774.

776. The Rhetoric of Scientific Communications (Rhetoric of Sci or Rh of Sci)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6, 4-5.
The problem of communicating discoveries. Scientific terminology. The best types of titles for scientific papers.

777. Plan of an Essay on the Rhetoric of Scientific Communication in two parts of ten of these Ms. pages each. Part I. General. Part II. Special
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
Semeiotics. Universal rhetoric.

778. [Late Fragments on Logic and Science]
A. MS., n.p., [c. 1909], pp. 5-15.
From a rambling lecture touching on the kinds of reasoning, the classification of the sciences, nominalism and realism in medieval logic, and the lecturer's scorn for contemporary philosophy and ". . . the stupid and utterly antiscientific doctrine that a law of nature is nothing but a fabrication of the human mind."

779. [Syllogism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp. of fragments.
Aristotle and the history of logic.

780. Table of Syllogisms
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp. (not in CSP's hand, with the exception of a single correction).
MSS. 780-782 may be parts of an examination.

781. Classification of Universals
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp. (not in CSP's hand).

782. Table of Contraposition
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p. (not in CSP's hand)

783 [On the Syllogism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Possibly an early draft of "Classification of Arguments."

784. Two Fallacies
A. MS., n.p., April 20, 1901, pp. 1-5
CSP notes that Mrs. Ladd-Franklin's method of testing syllogisms, based on the inconsistency of three propositions, is very similar to the method he used for the moods of the fourth figure (but which he rejected) in his paper: "On the Natural Classification of Arguments" (see G-1867-1b).

785. Notes (to 1867 paper Vol. 3)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 25 pp.
See G-1867-1a.

786. Notes on Mrs. Franklin's Article "Syllogism" (Syllogism)
A. MS., n .p ., n.d., pp. 1-18.

787. That Categorical and Hypothetical Propositions are one in essence, with some connected matters
A. MS., G-c.1895-1, pp. 1-49 (pp. 6-9 missing).
Published in Collected Papers in the following order: 2.332-339, 2.278-280, 1.564-567 (c.1899), 2-340-356.

788. Propositions of the 0 order, Propositions of the 1st order, Syllogisms of 0-0 order, Syllogisms of the 0-1 order, Syllogisms of the 1-1 order
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.

789. [Elements of a Proposition]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp. and 6 pp. (Universe).
"Universe" of a proposition is defined as "a series of possibilities to which the proposition refers but whose limits cannot be described in general terms but can only be indicated in some other way." A proposition may relate to several such universes.

790. [Fragment on Hypothetical Propositions]
A. MS., G-undated- 17, 1 p.
Published in entirety as 8.380n4,

791. #5 Analysis of the Proposition
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

792. On the Logical Nature of the Proposition (Dicisign)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2, with a rejected p. 2.
Notes confusion of proposition with statement, assertion, physical act of judging, and an act of assent. CSP proposes to state his own theory of propositions, and then he launches into a discussion of signs.

793. [On Signs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4, 10-14; plus 9 pp. of variants and 1 p. (fragment).
An attempt to define "sign" as a medium for the communication of form. Sign as essentially triadic. Application of existential graphs to signs. Speculative grammar, critic, and methodeutic. On p. 14 verso is the beginning of a letter to "Professor James."

794. Sections of Roget's Thesaurus containing words meaning signs
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1p.

795. [Classification of Signs on the Basis of Idea, Token, and Type]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

796. The Art of Reasoning. Chapter I. What is a Sign?
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Introduction of terms: quality, relations, focus, ratio, a relate, reagents, terms, signification, representamen.

797. [Fragments on Signs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp. (but not all from the same work).

798. [On Signs]
A. MS., G-c.1897-3, 5 pp.
Published as 2.227-229 and 2.444n1.

799. [Ten Classes of Signs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

800. P of L
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-6, 10; plus l p.
On the classification of signs.

801. Logic: Regarded as a Study of the General Nature of Signs (Logic)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
The transition from feeling to knowing. Definition of "sign." Calculations on the verso of one of the pages.

* 802. Teleological Logic
A. MS., n.p., begun May 14, 1865, 4 pp., incomplete.
Logic as the semeiotic science of representations. Division of the sciences into science of things, representations, and forms. Kinds of representations: signs, symbols, and copies.

803. [Logic and Signs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.

* 804. [Assertion and Signs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 22, 24, 29, 33.

* 805. [The Essential Nature of Assertions]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 18-20

806. Of Modality
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
The verso of one of the pages contains a chart, dated July 12, 1908, and labelled "Divisions of Signs."

* 807. [Necessary Modality]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 16-20.
Religious instinct and the evolution of the universe. Note on the relation of mathematical abilities and music.

808. Formal Division(s) of Dyadic Relations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

809. #12. Division of Formal Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
The nine prescindible references and the nine formal sciences.

810. [On the Formal Principles of Deductive Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. and 4 pp.
An attempt to recapitulate the principles of the logic of relatives. The nature of a sign, or representation.

811. [Printed Pages of "On the Natural Classification of Arguments"]
Printed pages (annotated), G-1867-1b (1893).
These pages from The Proceedings of the American Academy (1867) contain CSP's revisions of 1893. See sup(1)G1867-1b. Published, again, as 2.461-516, with the revisions of 1893.

* 812. Logico-Mathematical Glosses
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp. and pp. 8-9.
Boolean algebra. Sundry misconceptions about mathematical logic
(pp. 8-9).

813. [Logic and Mathematics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
Material on existential graphs.

814. Achilles and the Tortoise
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.

815. [Achilles and the Tortoise]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-6.

816. [On Five Grades of Originality in Logic, with Illustrations from the History of Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
Comments on Royce as logician and metaphysician, especially in connection with Royce's memoir, "The Relation of the Principles of Logic to the Foundations of Geometry."

817. [Various Fragments on Indicative Words, Hypothetical Propositions, Truth and Satisfaction]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

818. Mr. Bertrand Russell's Paradox
A. MS., n.p., late, 5 pp., unfinished.

819. The Conception of Infinity
A. MS., n p., [c-1880], 5 pp.
De Morgan's syllogism of transposed quantity, and the inappropriateness of one of De Morgan's examples. Fermatian inference and the collections to which it does and does not apply.

820. [Fermatian Inference]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.

821. Some Unmanageable Problems
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.
Notes on Cantor's "Beitro/ooge zur Begrundung der transfiniten Mengenlehre" (Mathematische Annalen of 1895).

822. [Hamilton and Mansel]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Laws of reasoning. Mansel's definitions of "absolute" and "infinite."

823. [Critic of Arguments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp., consecutive but incomplete.
An evaluation (and appreciation) of Benjamin Peirce’s powers of analysis. An examination of Mansel's views on logic.

824. Triadic Monosynthemes of Six Monads
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
The notebook also contains a list of names (of students?) and an estimate of their abilities, but this part of the notebook is not in CSP's hand. Drafts of two letters which were in the notebook have been removed and placed with CSP's correspondence. One of these drafts was to B. E. Smith and the other to F. C. S. Schiller.

825. (FRL)
A. MS., G-c.1899-1, 3 pp.
Published in entirety as 1.135-40.

826. Some Reveries of a Dotard
A. MS., n.p., late, pp. 1-5.
Logic as the science which distinguishes bad from sound reasoning. The sense of obligation in reasoning. Reflections on psychophysics. Fallibilism.

827. [Logic and the Doctrine of "Anti-cock-sure-ism"]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Inexactitude of physical laws, e.g., law of gravitation.

828. Logic (Li)
A. MS., n.p., November 2, 1910, pp. 1-3.
An analysis of doubt as neither ignorance nor consciousness of ignorance. Doubt is treated as an emotion.

829. [Absolute Certainty]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 sheets, numbered 2 and 3, incomplete.
CSP's inability to discover a single truth which seems free of doubt. Discussion of the propositions "I feel a prick" and "Twice two is four."

830. [Reasoning and Belief]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp., incomplete; plus 1 p. of a rejected draft.

831. [Reasoning and Instinct]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-29, incomplete.
The fine gradations between subconscious or instinctive mind and conscious, controlled reason. Logical machines are not strictly reasoning machines because they lack the ability of self-criticism and the ability to correct defects which may crop up. Three kinds of reasoning: inductive, deductive, hypothetical. Quasi-inferences.

832. [Reason and Instinct]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Reason as inferior to instinct. Comments on the work of Zeller and other German logicians and historical philosophers.

833. [Veracity]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Signs, truth, and veracity. Perfect veracity distinct from cognizable veracity.

834. [First, Second, and Third Degrees of Knowledge]
A. MS, n.p., n.d., 1 p.

835. [Three Grades of Clearness of Thought]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 9-17, incomplete.
Absurdity of the doctrine of simple concepts.

836. [Fragments on the Normative Sciences]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

837. [Various Topics in Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 27 pp.
Necessary reasoning, hypothesis, the syllogism, the logic of relatives, and the relationship between logic and evolution.

838. [Fragments on the Justification of Reasoning]
A. MS., n.p., late, 9 pp.
The fragments, all concerned with the same problem, are not from the same work. Two of the fragments are dated: April 10, 1911 and February 22, 1912.

* 839. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 199 pp.
Existential graphs, the logic of relatives, logical critic, theory of signs, hypothesis and induction, belief and reasoning, generalization, rationale of science, and classification are some of the topics found here. One page is dated September 22, 1860; the remainder are undated and apparently cover several periods of CSP's career.

840. [Fragment]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
"Logic is a sort of tree of knowledge of good and evil which costs the loss of paradise to him who tastes of its fruit."

Metaphysics


841. A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God (O)
A. MS., G-1908-2, pp. 1-64, with 11 pp. of variants.
Published in the Hibbert Journal, vol. 7, pp. 90-112, and again as 6.452-480.

*842. A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God (G)
A. MS., G-c.1905-1, pp. 1-134 (p. 27 and pp. 109-120 missing), with 40 pp. Of variants and 1 p. ("Contents of G").
Published, in part, as 2.755-772, except 757nl (pp. 44-108, except 86-87). Unpublished: Dedication "to the friend of my dreams." Autobiographical notes on CSP's early interest in logic. Neglected ("Humble") argument presented. Logical critic. The nature of real doubt and inquiry. Man's tendency toward correct conjectures illustrated. Retroduction and deduction. The division of signs into iconic, indexical, and symbolic. Two kinds of deductions: definitory and ratiocinative. The correction of crude induction, e.g., argument against miracles. Scholastic realism.

843. A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God (O) (O)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-71.
Apparently two drafts which are interwoven, with few, if any, pages missing, but with an order that is difficult to maintain. Both drafts are drafts of MSS. 841 and 842.

844. Additament to the Article A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God
A. MS., G-c.1910-1, pp. 1-8, with variants.
Published as 6.486-490 (pp. 1-8) and 6.491 (pp. 4-6 of an alternative section).

* 845. Answers to Questions about my Belief in God (A)
A. MS., G-c.1906-2, pp. 1-58.
Published as 6.494-501 (pp. 1-20) and 6.502-521 (pp. 32-58).

846. Notes for my Logical Criticism of Articles of the Christian Creed
A. MS., G-c.1910-3, pp. 1-14.
Published in entirety as 7.97-109.

847. First Rough Draught of the Substance of A Logical Examination of the Christian Creed in Brief Summary
A. MS., n.p., January 23, 1911, pp. 1-7.
CSP introduces himself to his reader: autobiographical notes on ancestry and family traits. Galton's rule of inheritance.

848. First Very Rough, Hasty, and Very Summary Draught (in places requiting and admitting of Great Condensation) of A Logical Examination of the Christian Creed
A. MS., n.p., January 24, 1911, pp. 1-12.
Slight revision of MS. 847. Galton's law of inheritance. Autobiographical notes on family background and traits.

849. A Logical Criticism of Some Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., April 9-20, 1911, pp. 1-11 (p. 2 missing; p. 11 misnumbered).
"Reasoning," "argument," and "sign," defined. Nature of signs: objects and interpretants of signs; the possibility of self-reference of signs.

850. A Logical Criticism of Essential Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., April 22, 1911, pp. 1-3.
For a book which was to be divided into two parts, the first part relating to logical critic. CSP regrets "that the darker and more cruel parts of religious faith have not had justice done to them nor brought into so high relief as they ought."

851. Rough Draught of Preface to Logical Criticism of Essential Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., April 23, 1911, 1 p.
The spirit of science and the spirit of religion are opposed. Religious life must begin in feeling.

* 852. A Logical Critique of Essential Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., April 25-May 21, 1911, pp. 1-15 unfinished; 6-14 of a discarded draft; plus 6 pp. also discarded.
CSP's plan to divide his book into two parts, one part concerned with logical critic and the other with the application of the principles of logical critic to religious questions. The meaning of "philosophy" as "a heuritic science of categorical truth." Philosophy based upon the common experience of all mankind. Doubt and belief opposed. Positive and negative doubt distinguished, with negative doubt regarded as the mere absence of belief. The meaning of "real"; its Latin derivation. Reality and hallucinatory experience. Common sense and critical common sense. Verbs and the Basque language (p. 15).

853. Important Jottings for my Critique of the Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., April 30, 1911, 1 folded sheet.
The failure to accept common sense judgments as true has led to false metaphysics and to a rejection of common sense religious faith of the deeper kind.

854. Notes on Logical Critique of the Essential Articles of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., October 20, 1911, 1 folded sheet.
The nature of a sign: sign objects and interpretants.

855. Contents of Rough Draught of Logical Critique of Religious Faith
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet.
Presumably an outline of the topics with which CSP's book is to be concerned. CSP's intention is to couple logical critic with the facts of human life.

856. A Logical Criticism of the Articles of Religious Belief
A. MS., n.p., 2 pp. of one of the alternative sections are dated April 5 and 7, 1911, pp. 1-18, with several alternative sections.
The contempt for religious faith in scientific circles reveals, not open-mindedness, but prejudice. Deduction, induction, and retroduction are the only kinds of reasoning. Deduction as either necessary or probable. Determinism and free will. Over-specialization on the part of the average scientist has made him culturally ignorant - a queer mixture of enlightenment and of what is the equivalent of superstition. Laws of nature. Miracles and ultramiracles. Two of the alternative sections contain a discussion of existential graphs.

857. Lecture I
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, incomplete.
This is the first lecture of the course planned in MS. 876. Double purpose of lecture: (1) to determine what a reasonable mind of the day ought to think of religion and (2) to comment on the validity of reasoning in general. Three and only three kinds of reasoning. Abduction, or retroduction. CSP's objectivity on the question of God's existence. If there is an Absolute, it is nothing like God.

858. An Essay on the Limits of Religious Thought written to prove that we can reason upon the nature of God
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
There are two dates on the verso of one of the pages: April 10, 1857 and January 11, 1861. The possibility of giving intelligible definitions of things which themselves can not be comprehended. Is the definition of "infinite" possible? The three necessary modes of dependency are community, causality, and influx. The three perfect degrees of modality are possibility, actuality, and necessity. All degree admits of one of three successive degrees: nullity, positivity, and perfection. All stages have one of three temporal expressions: retrogression, contemporaniety, or succession. The three intuitions of expression. The three total quantities of intuition and the three infinite qualities of quantity. Lastly, the three influxual dependencies of quality: negation, reality, infinity.

859. Influx. Proof of the Infinite Nature of the Creator
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

860. [Nominalism, Realism, and the Logic of Modern Science]
A. MS., G-c.1896-1, 17 pp.
From this manuscript, 6.492-493 were published. Unpublished: scientific method and the solution of philosophical problems. Misapprehensions concerning the scientific method. Nominalistic and realistic metaphysics.

861. [On Religious Belief, The Efficacy of Prayer, and Proof of God's Reality]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp. incomplete.
The verso of one page includes a brief comment on the meaning of in relation to the views of Albertus Magnus and Duns Scotus. Cf. A3 of MS. 845.

862. [On the Recognition of Divine Inspiration]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp. (discontinuous but possibly parts of two drafts).
On the possible sources of knowledge.

863. [The Effect of Scientific Thought on Spiritual Beliefs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

864. Notes for my little book on Religion
A. MS., notebook, n.p., June 20, 1906, with a sheet of notes which seem to be part of the same project.
One page provides what is probably the topical outline of a book would have treated the relationship between science and religion.

865. [Notes on Religious and Scientific Infallibilism]
A. MS., G-c.1897-2, 4 pp. and 7 pp.
The manuscript of 4 pp. was published as 1.8-14. The manuscript of 7 pp. was not published. Anticipated awakening of religious life, with greater simplicity of belief and greater spiritualization of the creeds. The Church's claim to infallibility is sound enough if by "infallibility" is meant practical infallibility.

866. [On the Reconciliation of Religion and Science]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
The denial of mechanical infallibilism, coupled with a plea for the moderation of religious infallibilism. Agnosticism is found intolerable. The reconciliation of religion and science can not be accomplished by a religion of science.

867. [Religion, Science, and Fallibilism]
A. MS., G-c.1897-1, pp. 10-12.
Published in entirety as 1.3-7.

868. [Notes on Science and Religion]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp., with a typed copy.
The effect of religious exercises upon morality.

869. Hume on Miracles (H on M)
A. MS., G-1901-2b, pp. 1-34, with rejected pp. 7-8.
Published in entirety as 6.522-547.

870. What is a Law of Nature (Law of Nat)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1901?], pp. 1-40, with variants.
The meaning of the phrase "Law of Nature," and the history of its usage. The Aristotelian theory of growth and potentiality. Scholastic realism and substantial forms. The anti-Aristotelianism of Ockham. The Cartesian view of "law." Seventeenth-century atheism in England. Modern nominalism.

871. What is a Law of Nature? (L of N)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-27 (p. 24 missing), plus several variants.
"Law of nature" as the "prognostic generalization of observations." Conception of law of nature prevalent in Hume's England. Hume's argument against miracles.

872. The Idea of a Law of Nature among the contemporaries of David Hume and among advanced thinkers of the present day (Law)
A. MS., G-1901-2a, April 19, 1901, pp. 1-29; plus 16 pp. of at least one other draft, with 1 p. bearing the title "Hume on Miracles and the Laws of Nature."
Published, in part, as 1.133-134 (pp. 4-9). Unpublished: definition of "philosophy," with philosophy and mathematics sharply differentiated. Hume and his contemporaries. Miracles and the laws of nature. How the idea of evolution has influenced philosophy. Metaphysics must be based upon a correct systematic logic. Whether philosophy should be divided into two parts (logic and metaphysics) or three parts (logic, metaphysics, and ethics).

873. Hume's Argument against Miracles, and the Idea of Natural Law (Hume)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-20, with variants.
Terminology: "inference," "abduction," "induction," "belief," "habit." Pragmatism as a maxim of right thinking. Hedonism and the distinction between pleasure and satisfaction. Ultimate or final ends or aims.

874. The Order of Nature
TS. (CSP's), G-1877-5e, 14 pp.
Published in entirety as 6.395-427.

* 875. [On Natural Law and Chance]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1884], 36 pp.
Parts of a draft or drafts of one or more lectures delivered at The Johns Hopkins University about 1883-84, perhaps that on "Design and Chance" before the Metaphysical Club on January 17, 1884. Analysis of conceptions of design and intelligence. The tendencies of things toward ends. Darwin's influence upon both science and philosophy. The operation of chance.

876. Suggestions for a Course of Entretiens leading up through Philosophy to the Questions of Spiritualism, Ghosts, and finally to that of Religion
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-11, with rejected pp. 1, 4; plus 1 p. ("Entretien1").
Sketch of a course of half-hour lectures (followed by conversation). The three basic kinds of reasoning: deduction, induction, and retroduction. The justification of reasoning.

877. Brief Sketch of a Proposed Series of Articles on the Cosmology of Here and Hereafter
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp. (of several drafts).
Spiritualism examined; plan for four articles. On the reverse side of three of these pages are drafts of two letters, one of which is addressed to Murrian and the other unaddressed.

878. Logic and Spiritualism
TS., sup(1)G-1890-4, pp. 1-19, with corrections and additions in CSP's hand, a typed copy, and a galley proof with CSP's corrections.
Published as 6.557-587. This manuscript was intended for The Forum after correcting the galleys CSP became dissatisfied with his efforts and so the article was never published.

879. Logic and Spiritualism
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-18 (pp. 10-12 missing); pp. 1-40 (pp. 6-7 missing);
a 4 pp. sequence belonging to one of the two incomplete drafts of MS. 878.
On spiritualism and scientific open-mindedness. Adequate discussion of spiritualism requires a satisfactory solution to the soul-body problem. CSP's suggestion that matter be regarded as a modification of mind rather than mind as a modification of matter.

880. [On Spiritualism, Telepathy, and Miracles]
A. MS., n .p., [c.1890-91?], 11 pp.
CSP has never attended a successful seance. He speaks of himself as "a hidebound sceptic," but admits that there is no direct argument against spiritualism and telepathy. Protestantism and Roman-Catholicism on the question of miracles.

* 881. Telepathy
A. MS., G-1903-5, pp. 1-100, plus 49 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 7.597-688, except 597n3 (pp. 1-99, with deletions).

882. [Telepathy]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 16-18 (cf. G-c.1895-4 and 7.597n3).
Common sense flatly denies telepathy. CSP finds the theory doubtful and rejects it provisionally.

883. [Thought Transference]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Remarks on C. S. Minot's "Second Report to the American Psychical Research Society on Experimental Psychology."

884. An Examination of an Argument of Messrs. Gurney, Myers, and Podmore"
TS., n.p., 1887, 20 pp. (four drafts of 5 pp. each).
One of these drafts is a typescript of G-1887-3. An analysis of case histories of psychic phenomena in Gurney's Phantasms of the Living.

885. Demsis
A. MS., n.p., 1892, 5 pp.
Draft of G-1892-2.

886. Immortality in the Light of Synechism
A. MS., G-c.1892-2, pp. 1-12.
Published in entirety as 7.565-578.

887. [For The Open Court article "What is Christian Faith"]
A. MS., G-1893-3, 7 pp.

888. [For The Open Court article, "Pythagorics"]
A. MS., G-1892-1a, 4 pp., with 6 pp. addressed to the Editor of The Open Court.

889. [An Illustration of an Unelevated Religion: Book of Psalms]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

890. [Assorted Pages on Problems of Religious Belief]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp. (continuous); plus 4 pp. (not continuous).
The only solution to the problem of evil is to accept the fact that Supreme Love embraces hate, and that sin is a creation of God. "God delights in evil." Anselm's argument that God necessarily exists is rejected.

891. Private thoughts principally on the conducted life
A. MS., notebook, n.p., 1853-March 17, 1888. Call number Am 805.
Thirty-nine pages, being a collection of aphorisms on such subjects as genius, love, solitude, worship, prayer, heaven, impudence and grace, passion and pleasure, freedom and causation, classification of the human faculties. Sample: "Best maxim in writing, perhaps, is really to love your reader for his own sake." These aphorisms were apparently transcribed by CSP from various other writings of his on several occasions. Entry number LXX, for instance, is dated 1866 Nov. 20, and reads: "What is not a question of a possible experience is not a question of fact." This seems to be a slight revision of an entry in the Logic Notebook (MS. 339), p. 11v also dated 1866 Nov. 20: "What is not a question of what can possibly be known is not a question of fact."

892. [On Moral Necessity and the Law of Love]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

893. [Hegelianism, Christian Thought, and Morality]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp., with another page which may be part of the same manuscript. .

894. Religion and Politics
A. MS., G-c. 1895-2, pp. 1-3.
Published as 6.449-551, with the exception of the first paragraph and the first sentence of the second paragraph which concern the politician and his obligations to his party.

CATEGORIOLOGY

895. [Notes on the Categories]
A. MS., G-c.1880-2, 41 pp.
Five pages of the manuscript were published as 1.353. Omitted: application of the categories in formal logic. Logical analysis of "Cogito, ergo sum." Kantian and Peircean categories compared. The Kantian categories of totality, plurality, and unity are nearly CSP's. Criticism of Kant's views on the functions of judgments.

* 896. [Fragment on the Categories]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Generous and degenerate Thirdness. Entelechy as the mode of being constituted by generous Thirdness.

897. One, Two, Three: Kantian Categories
TS. (with CSP's corrections), n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Metaphysics as an "imitation" of geometry. Both geometrical and metaphysical axioms may be doubted. Brief account of CSP's cosmology.

898. The List of Categories: A Second Essay (Cat)
A. MS., G-c.1894-1, pp. 1-4.
Published as 1.300-301, 1.293, 1.303, 1.326-329 in this order.

899. The Cenopythagorean Categories (CC)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-13, incomplete, with 9 pp. of variants.
Explanation of the use of the expression "Cenopythagorean." Hypothesis: The elements of the world are such that each expressly excludes the possibility of any contradiction. The whole, in this case, is such as it is by virtue of what the elements are. Some implications of this hypothesis.

900. Logic of Mathematics: An attempt to develop my categories from within (L of M)
A. MS., G-c.1896-2, pp. 5-69 (pp. 1-4 missing), with 48 pp. of variants.
Published in entirety as 1.417-520.

901. One, Two, Three: Fundamental Categories of Thought and of Nature
A. MS., G-c.1885-1, pp. 1-39, incomplete, with a variant p. 8.
Published, in part, as 1.369-372 and 1.376-378. Unpublished (pp. 20-24; 33-39): If the three categories are connected with reasoning, they must be present in the mind as innate ideas when reasoning first takes place. The three mental faculties corresponding to the three categories of logic are feeling, volition, and cognition. The three elements of consciousness must be capable of physiological explanation. Speculation as to whether the cell may contain all the fundamental elements of the universe.

902. The Author's Response to the anticipated Suspicion that he attaches a superstitious or fanciful importance to the number three, and forces Divisions to a Procrustean Bed of Trichotomy (R)
A. MS., G-1919-4, pp. 1-20, with 2 pp. of variants; plus 10 pp. of an untitled earlier draft (9/11/10)
Published, in part, as 1.568-572. Unpublished (pp. 11-20): The classification of the animal world is continued. CSP's admission of his slight acquaintance with zoology and, in spite of his study of classification under Agassiz for six months (1860), his "incapacity" for this kind of work. An examination of Huxley's classification of fish. Also unpublished (pp. R9.1-9.8): Artificial things are classified, with a view toward establishing trichotomies.

903. [First, Second, Third Categories]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Fragments of other drafts of MS. 717.

904 [Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness]
A. MS., G-c.1875-1 [1882 or later], 4 pp., 2 pp., 1 p.
The manuscript is on paper with a watermark of 1882 and so must be dated 1882 or later. The two-page sequence was published as 1.337. The other pages offer an explanation of the three categories and touch upon the three kinds of philosophies of the absolute, namely, Epicureanism, pessimism, and evolutionism.

905. One, Two, Three
A. MS., notebook, n.p., December 7, 1907 (the earliest of several dates recorded).
Rough notes on the three categories. Digressions: stages of inquiry; kinds of induction; probability. "Unpretentious Argument for Reality of God" (April 16, 1908) .

906. One, Two, Three; An Evolutionist Speculation
TS. (with corrections and additions in CSP's hand), n.p., n.d., 2 pp., with alternative drafts and carbon copies.
An attempt to explain Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness with the use of examples.

907. [Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness]
TS. (with corrections and additions in CSP's hand), n.p., n.d., 1 p.
The reason for not giving abstract definitions of the conceptions of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness. A denial that the One of Parmenides, the unity of "I think," or any other unities discussed by philosophers have anything at all to do with Firstness.

908. [The Categories]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-20, 6-8.
A deduction of the Categories. The breadth of pragmaticism. The elements of the phaneron.

909. A Guess at the Riddle [and] Notes for a Book to be entitled: A Guess at the Riddle
TS. (corrected), G-c.1890-1, 65 pp., including alternative drafts.
The "Notes" alone were published as follows: 1.354-368; 1.373-375; 1.379-416, with omissions.

910. Types of Third Degenerate in the Second Degree
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2.

911. [Degrees of Degeneracy]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet.
A triple character has two degrees of degeneracy. Degeneracy of a dual character. Nondegenerate dual relation is a real relation. Token, index, icon.

912. [The Three Categories: Primian, Secundian, Tertian]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.; plus 1 p. which seems to belong with the others.

913. [Firstness and Secondness]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

914. [Firstness, Secondness, Thirdness, and the Reducibility of Fourthness]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 5-8.
The nature of signs.

915. [The Three Categories and the Reduction of Fourthness]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
The concepts of one, two, three are inseparably connected. The concept of four (and of any higher number) is a "complication" of three. In this connection CSP's dispute with Sylvester is mentioned.

MISCELLANEOUS

916. The Modus of the It
A. MS., n.p., early, 4 pp., with a typed copy.
Three celestial worlds: manifold of sense, world of consciousness, world of abstraction. That which is in the sensible world enters the mental world by means of a revelation which is part of the abstract world. Three abstract revelations. Three kinds of absolute existence. Three kinds of necessary modes: community, causality, and influx. Three kinds of influxial derivation. Three total shapes. Three immense manifestations. The It and the Thou.

917. I, It, and Thou: A Book giving Instructions in some of the elements of Thought
A. MS., n.p., early, 2 pp., consecutive, and 2 pp. which are related.
The relationships of the three different worlds in which I, It, and Thou are discovered.

918. On the Classification of the Human Faculties
A. MS., n.p., [c.1859], 1 folded sheet (3 pp.).
Rational psychology. The seven faculties (exhibiting strong Kantian influence). Arousing regarded as a special faculty, which guarantees the intelligibility of free will. Classification of the I-impulse, It-impulse, Thou-impulse.

* 919. [Fragments of Early Writings on Metaphysics]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1860], 23 pp.
Outlines for a book on metaphysics - the queen of the sciences, the supreme science. I, It, Thou. The classification of artificial objects with reference to final causes. Signs. Symbols and their objects. Leading principles. Truth. Sundry comments on life and death, heaven and hell, and on the soul. Force and power.

920. [First Four Chapters of a Treatise on Metaphysics]
A. MS., n.p., August 21, 1861 (Preface), 48 pp.
The first three chapters constitute the "Introduction" and are as follows: Chapter I, "Domain, Basis, and Fabric of Metaphysical Thought"; Chapter II, "The Insufficiency of Dialectics" (ground of dogmatical, psychological, and logical dialectics); Chapter III, "On the Uselessness of Transcendentalism." The next chapter, the first chapter of Book I, is entitled "Principles" and deals with man as the measure of all things. More generally, these chapters are concerned with metaphysics as the philosophy of primal truths; that is, whose truths are the primary conditions of all science. Fundamental distinctions of metaphysics. Metaphysics, psychology, and religion. Truth and faith. Refutation of transcendentalism. Notes on the work of Kant, Hume, and Mansel. Idealism, materialism, realistic pantheism as representing the three worlds of mind, matter, and God. These worlds mutually exclude and include each other.

921. [Fragments from a Treatise on Metaphysics]
A. MS., n.p., [1859-61], 16 pp., 4 pp., and 124 pp.
A table of contents and notes for Chapter II, "On the Insufficiency of Dialectics." Dogmatical, psychological, and logical dialectics. Examples of the necessity of diflection and ordination. Probability of error. Notes for another Chapter II, "Nature of the Perfect." Proof that there are elementary propositions and that every conception is of boundless complication. Several other titles are distinguishable of which the comprehensive title is: "Matter Preparatory to Metaphysical Meditation." Other titles are as follows: "Proper Domain of Metaphysics" (May 21, 1859); "New Names and Symbols for Kant's Categories" (May 21, 1859); "That There is No Need of Transcendentalism" (May 21, 1859); "That the Perfect is the great Subject of Metaphysics" (May 21, 1859); "Explanation of the Categories" (May 22, 1859); "Of the Stages of the Category of Modality or Chance" (May 22, 1859); "Metaphysics as a Study" (June 1859); "On the Definition of Metaphysics" (July 1859); "Comparison of our Knowledge of God and of other Substances" (July 25, 1859); "All unthought is thought of" (July 25, 1859); "Of Realism and Nominalism" (July 25, 1859); "Sir William Hamilton's Theory of the Infinite" (July 27, 1859); "That We can Understand the Definition of Infinity" (October 23, 1859); "Two Kinds of Thinking" (October 23, 1859); "The Nature of our Knowledge of the Infinite" (October 23, 1859); "Of Objects" (October 25, 1859); "Of Pantheism" (October 25, 1859); "Why We can Reason of the Infinite" (October 25, 1859); "That Infinity is an Unconscious Idea" (October 25, 1859); "The Fundamental Distinction of Metaphysics" (June 30, 1860); "Elucidation of the Essay, headed All unthought is thought of" (June 30, 1860); "The Keystone of this System" (July 1, 1860); "The Logical and the Psychological Treatment of Metaphysics" July 3, 1860); "The Infinite, the Type of the Perfect" (July 3, 1860); "The Orders of Mathematical Infinity" (July 13, 1860); "Summary" (December 16, 1860); "Domain of Metaphysics" (August 6, 1861); "Introductory to Metaphysics" (August 11, 1861).

*922. [Notes for a Work on Metaphysics]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1862 with one page dated May 29, 1862], 41 pp.
The first book of this projected work would have had the title, "Principles of Metaphysical Investigation." Man as the measure of all things. Truth and the nature of faith. Refutation of transcendentalism. On language, form, and plasticity.

923. [Ten Irreducible Conceptions and their Combinations]
A. MS., n.p., 1860-62, 24 pp., with a typed copy of the page dated June 8, 1862.

924. A Treatise of the Major Premisses of the Science of Finite Subjects (Nature)
A. MS., n.p., August 5, 1864, 3 pp.
All reasoning can be represented syllogistically. The major premises - the principles of science - are the subjects of metaphysics. Metaphysics as theoretically essential to science.

925. [A Treatise of the Major Premisses of the Science of Finite Subjects]
A. MS., n.p., August 5, 1864, 3 pp.
Science relies on the assumption that observation has value beyond itself.
The need to discover some validity of the major premises given in sensation; otherwise assumption of the major premises is petitio principii.

926. A Treatise of the Major Premisses of Natural Science A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Major premises regarded as a priori, i.e., logically antecedent to all science. Judgments refer predicate to subject. The subject is assumed; the predicate is experienced. All judgment is inference.

927. Possible extensive relations of subject and predicate
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 9 pp.
Quantities, qualities, real predicates, relations, forms of fact, reasonableness, and creative potentialities are all related. Admixture of chemical notes.

928. Sketch of a New Philosophy
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 15 pp.
Reasoning and experimentation essentially analogous. Philosophy is committed to the notion that the processes of nature and thought are alike. Chance, law, and continuity. Mathematical and metaphysical axioms. The monism of modern psychology is materialistic. Eleven chapters contemplated, and these are outlined briefly.

929. [On the Study of Metaphysics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The training metaphysicians receive today is compared unfavorably with the training they
received in the medieval universities.

* 930. [On the Meaning of "Real"]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 20 pp., including variants, numbered from 4-45 but not continuously.
The difference between "would be" and "actually is" ("was," or "will be"). History of word "real"; Duns Scotus and Kant on the real; CSP's definition. Mode of consciousness and the taking on of habits.

931. Questions on Reality
A. MS., n.p., [1868], 48 pp., with 2 pp. of an earlier draft.
The earlier draft of 2 pp. is an outline draft of G-1868-2a. Twelve questions asked and answered dogmatically. The questions are concerned with the possibility of ultimate cognitions; immediate self-consciousness; knowledge of the external world; truth and the agreement of logical conclusion with information; contradiction as not always signifying falsity; matter as not necessary to reality; thought and signs; the meaning of the "unknowable." The later draft concerns the proper method for determining how we think; self-evidentness and self-consciousness; the perceived and the imagined; our knowledge of the external world; thinking and signs; signs of the unknowable. Is there any cognition which is absolutely incapable of being known? Have we any intuitions? Some of the questions raised in the earlier draft are raised again and this time answered less dogmatically.

932. Potentia ex Impotentia
A. MS., n.p., [1868], 9 pp. of two drafts.
Questions concerning reality. The future of metaphysics depends upon its establishing a connection with tangible external facts. Defense of the view that no sign means anything essentially incognizable. On knowledge of things-in-themselves. Idealism and first impressions of sense.

933. [Reality, Being, and Figment]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp. (but not continuous).
Reality and figment not equated with Being and nothing. A figment is something, and therefore comes under the heading of Being.

* 934. [Reality of the Universe]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 24-29.
Primary qualities and feelings. Phenomenalism and the relativity of knowledge. Being, accident, substance. The passage from being to substance is mediated by conception of accident. The threefold nature of accident: quality, relation, representation. Quality is firstness; relation, secondness; representation, thirdness. Relations are of two great genera: (a) those whose ground is prescindable and (b) those whose ground is not.

935. [Notes on Idealism]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1873-77?], 4 pp.
Is it possible to conceive of anything which is not an object of thought? Defense of the central position of idealism, namely, that the actual or possible object of thought is an essential part of existence.

936. [Idealism, Mind and Matter, and the Principle of Continuity]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Leibniz as the first to set forth the law of continuity, which explains how mind and matter act upon each other. Matter as effete mind which is habit bound. An elevated theory of idealism.

* 937. The Connection between Mind and Matter
A. MS., G-c.1893-2, pp. 1-13, with a variant p. 8; plus an earlier draft of 10 pp.
Published in entirety as 6.272-277.

938. (Matter)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1904], pp. 1-8, with an alternative p. 8.
Comments on Balfour's British Association Address (August 17, 1904) on the constitution of matter, especially the electron theory. The experimentalist's usage of "phenomenon." The confusion between belief in a reality which is expressible in phenomenalistic terms and belief in reality which is not so expressible.

939. Notes on Portions of Hume's "Treatise of Human Nature"
A. MS., n.p., [1905], 44 pp. and 5 pp. of variants.
For the probable date of the manuscript, see S. P. Langley correspondence for a letter from CSP, dated June 1, 1905. CSP considers only Part IV, Sections 1 and 2 of the "Treatise." Criticism of Hume's analysis of reasoning leads to an exposition of his own views. Association of beliefs, acritical reasoning, and reasoning (abductive, inductive, and deductive). Reasoning as that special variety of action which is under self-control. Probability and certainty; genuine and counterfeit beliefs; indubitability of beliefs and instincts. Hume's nominalistic metaphysics in the context of the nominalist-realist dispute. Percept and perceptual judgment as well as existence and reality distinguished. Three grades of complexity of being, with the triadic mode the most complex. Three kinds of triadic relations: collectivity, energy, signs. The different kinds of signs.

940. Logic of Events (LE)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-11.
Published in two places with minor deletions: 6.1-5; 6.214-221.

941. Notes for 8 Lectures (N8)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-8.
Published with a deletion (cf. 6.222n*) as 6.222-237. These pages are to be inserted at the end of MS. 940. See the last page of "Logic of Events" for the instructions to do so.

942. Abstracts of 8 Lectures (A8)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-33, incomplete, with variants and a single sheet entitled "Bifaria for 8 Lectures" (B8).
The bare nothing of possibility logically leads to continuity. Continuum of possible quality. Thisness and individuality; thisness and reaction. Firstness, Secondness, Thirdness. Habit, generalization, and the laws of nature. Evolution.

943. Considerations for 8 Lectures (C8)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.; plus a typed copy.
Hegel and the logic of continuity. Specific criticism of Hegel's understanding of mathematics, for example, his view that past, present, and future are the three dimensions of time. Further criticisms of Hegel concerns the logic of events.

944. Dottings for 8 Lectures (D8)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp. (two attempts); plus a typed copy.
Hegel and CSP mean nearly the same thing by existence. CSP can almost accept Hegel's definition as the immediate unity of reflection-into-self and reflection-into-another (his reservation concerns reflection). Hegel misplaces existence by putting it under the first part of his Encyclopaedia (Logic) and under the second division (Wesen), whereas he places time under the second part (Nature). For CSP, time would first have had to be organized before nature could have begun.

945. Mems for 8 Lectures (M8)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The freedom of unbounded possibility (before time and space were organized). The nothing of the not yet being distinguished from the nothing of negation. Becoming. Quality is a sleeping, potential consciousness; quale-consciousness is a potential mode of being.

946. An Outline Sketch of the Synechistic Philosophy
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.
Explanation of the word "synechistic" and justification of its use. Its cognate opposite "diechistic."

947. [Continuity and Hegel]
A. MS., G-c.1892-1b, 2 pp.
One of the two pages was published: 1.41-42.

948. The Logic of Continuity (LC)
A. MS., G-1898-1, pp. 1-37.
This is the last of the proposed set of eight lectures of 1898. Published, in part, as 6.185-213 (pp. 7-10 and 21-37). Unpublished is material on the history of geometry (pp. 1-7). Geometrical topics; continuum; Listing Numbers (pp. 10-20).

* 949. [Continuity]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.
Principle of continuity as the one great desideratum in all theorizing, and the master-key of philosophy.

* 950. [Continuity, Probability, Statistical Syllogism]
A. MS., n.p., [C.1893], pp. 7-12 and 6 pp.
Ultimate continuity as a regulative principle (6 pp.). Continuity as ubiquitous mediation; its relationship to dynamics (pp. 7-12).

951. Habit (H)
A. MS., G-1898-1 [c.1898], pp. 1-10 12-37 (MS. appears to be continuous, although there is no p. 11).
Published in entirety as 7.468-517.

952. [The Rationality of the Universe]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

953. [First and Second Conversazione]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8, with variants.
The three views of knowledge: Epicurean, pessimistic, and melioristic. Second conversazione is on the idea of clearness.

954- [Evolution]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp. and 10 pp.
The manuscript of 5 pp. is concerned with speculation on the possibility that Darwin was influenced by Malthus and the political economists. The manuscript of 10 pp. is concerned with the three modes of evolution: Darwinian Lamarckian, and that mode by which "the mechanical effects of external causes, which go to break up habits, especially habits of heredity,... make forms vary, in determinate ways." Also: spontaneity and law, with law the product of evolution; matter as mind under almost complete domination of habit; synechism and questions concerning religion, morality, and telepathy.

955. [Fallibilism, Continuity, and Evolution]
A. MS., G-c.1897-5, 57 pp.
Published, with deletions, as 1.141-175. See sup(1)G-1892-0.

* 956. The Architecture of Theories
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 65 p.
This manuscript appears to be an early draft of the Monist article (G-1891-1a). On the principles of evolution.

* 957 [Evolutionary Love]
A. MS., n p, n.d., 73 pp.
Early draft of an article which appeared in the Monist entitled "Evolutionary Love" and reprinted as 6.287-317 (G-1891-1e).

958. Reply to the Necessitarians
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 218 pp.
Early and incomplete drafts of an article published in the Monist entitled "Reply to the Necessitarians: Rejoinder to Dr. Carus" and reprinted as 6.588-618 (G-1891-1f).

959. [Fragment of "The Doctrine of Necessity Examined"]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

* 960. [Argument Against Necessitarianism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 folded sheets (8 pp.)

961. The Law of Mind and Our Glassy Essence
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 100 pp. ("Our Glassy Essence"); 22 pp. and 2 pp. ("The Law of Mind") and a notebook "Notes for Paper on the Laws of Mind 1892 May 10."
Early drafts of G-1891-1c and G-1891-1d.

* 962. A Molecular Theory of Protoplasm
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
See 6.239 ff.

963. Introduction. The Association of Ideas
TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., 8 pp., with 1 p. of notes.
Principles of association: contiguity, similarity, contrast, and causality. Association is not explained by causality but causality by association Mind is not explained by matter. Rather, matter seems to be explained by mind. Criticism of treatises on logic, based upon works passed on from the Middle Ages. See Grand Logic (MS. 400).

* 964. The Innateness of Notions and The Innateness of Ideas
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Notion and idea contrasted. "Idea" connotes the essential character of a thing.

965. Creation
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 12 pp. (with a sequence numbered 28-33).
Science strives for knowledge for its own sake, but this knowledge is not systematized. The original chaos. Feeling and the tendency to generalization which brings about attraction between objects.

966. [Reflections on Real and Unreal Objects]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Late notes on metaphysics; earlier jottings on mathematics of three dimensions. Definition of "object" and "real object." Abstract idea of the unreal; our inability to think of an unreal object as real.

967. [Nominalism and Realism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
Nominalism as a reductive theory. Realism as a kind of idealism.

* 968. [Fragment on Metaphysical Axioms]
A. MS., G-c.1893-1, 5 pp.
Published, in part, as 1.130-132.

969. [Architectonic Character of Philosophy]
A. MS., G-c.1893-5 [c.1896], 3 pp.
Published in entirety as 1.176-179.

970. [Critique of Positivism]
A. MS., n.p., n.d,. pp. 1-18 and a 1 p. outline. Weakness of Comtean positivism is both logical and religious. Although positivism has had a favorable influence upon science its supporters are essentially unscientific.

971. Notes on the Question of the Existence of an Eternal World
A. MS., G-c.1890-2, 5 pp., and 3 pp. of a fragmentary alternative draft.
Published, for the most part, as 1.36-39.

972. Six Lectures of Hints toward a Theory of the Universe
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

973. [Transcription and Translation of Plato's Defense of Socrates]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

974. Plato's Dialogues
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Plato's Dialogues are listed, with their length and probable date noted. There are two other lists of Dialogues, one of which is headed "probably spurious" and the other "decidedly spurious." For the rest, there is a summary and an analysis of sorts of the early Dialogues.

975. Plato
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
List of dates of the important events in Plato's life.

976. Plato
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Significant dates in the life of Plato. A note on Aristotle's references to Plato.

* 977. Plato's Dialogues
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet and 1 p.

978. Order of Plato's Dialogues
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
Chronology of Plato's Dialogues established by stylistic developments.

979. [Chronology of Plato's Dialogues]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 charts.
Chronology based, in part, on Lutoslawski's data.

980. Stylistic Development of Plato's Dialogues
A. MS., n.p., November 3-5, 1901, 8 pp.

981. Conjectural Dates of Plato's Dialogues
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

982. Lutoslawski. Plato
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
Notes on Lutoslawski's research on the Platonic Dialogues.

983. Lutoslawski's Recalculations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, and a single unnumbered sheet.

984. Lutoslawski's "Relative Affinities"
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
Lutoslawski's miscalculations, with a list of corrections.

985. [Lutoslawski and a Report of Diogenes Laertius]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet (3 pp.).
CSP takes exception to Lutoslawski's refusal to credit Diogenes Laertius's report of what Hermodorus says is the truth concerning Plato's visit to Megara after the death of Socrates.

986. Translation of the beginning of the Cratylus (Cratylus)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.
Commentary accompanies the translation.

987. Note to 944 B Laws
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-2.
This manuscript is not in CSP's hand, but a note in the right-hand corner reads: "Jowett. Pierce [sic] notes."

988. Metaphysical Axioms and Syllogisms
A. MS., n.p., May 30, 1860, 22 pp.
Notes on the following Platonic Dialogues: Apology, Crito, Gorgias, Phaedo, Protagorus, and the Republic.

989. [Fragments on the Platonic Dialogues]
A. MS., n.p., n.d, 8 pp.
These fragments are mainly concerned with chronology based on Lutoslawski's data.

990. [Plato's Philebus]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Note on Euripedes.

991. Categories
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
The Aristotelian categories. Synonyms, homonyms, paronyms.

992. Aristotle's Notion of Priority
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
The first few pages of the notebook deal with the classification of the sciences into sciences of research, review, and practical application and with the relative importance of experiences, actions, and thoughts. The remaining pages are a transcription, translation, and annotation of various sections of several works of Aristotle but are primarily concerned with the notion of priority in chapters XII and XIII of the Categories.

993. [Aristotle's Physics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

994. [Byzantine Logic and Prantl's Scholarship]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp. and 1 p.
Criticism of Prantl's scholarship; "Byzantine logic" defined.

995. [Fragments on Medieval Sources]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

996. [On Boethius]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 93, 95.

* 997. [Biographical Notes on Duns Scotus]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

998. Consequentia.
A. MS., from a notebook, n.p., n.d., 26 pp.
Duns Scotus (extraction and commentary). Lutoslawski's study of Plato. Phaneroscopy. Tables concerned with classification of colors.

999. Ockham's Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

1000. [Fragment on the History of Logic]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The contributions of Scotus, Ockham, Cartesianism, Bacon, Leibniz, and the Leibnizian logicians, Wolff and Lambert.

1001. Passages in Occam's Logic concerning Relations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

1002. [Fragments on the History of Philosophy]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 41, 45, 47 (77), 73-76, 80-81.
The a priori method of fixing belief: Descartes, Liebniz, Kant, and Hegel.

1003. The Axioms of Intuition. After Kant
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.; plus a cover with the title "Quantity."
All intuitions are extensive quantities. Reflections on the following axioms: Space has three dimensions, a straight line is the shortest distance between two points, and two lines cannot enclose space.

1004. Notes on the Critic of the Pure Reason
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Notes on the title of Kant's work as well as on the dedication, prefaces, and table of contents. Also notes on the distinction between pure and empirical cognition.

1005. Critic of the Pure Reason
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp. and 24 pp.
Translation of the Critic through Part I of the Introduction. Vocabulary of Kantian words and phrases (2 pp.).

1006. Critique of Pure Reason
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. (table of contents for CSP's translation); plus 1 p. (showing the chronological relationship of Kant's Critique to the works of other German philosophers).

1007. [Kant Studies: Translations]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 66 pp., including title page which acknowledges the aid of Miss C. E. Peirce.
Notes and fragments of translations of The Critique of Pure Reason. Not all of the manuscript is in CSP's hand. Some sections are in the hand of CSP's Aunt, Charlotte Elizabeth Peirce. Translations of the First Book of the Transcendental Analytic, Chapter II, Section 2, Of the Grounds a priori of the Possibility of Experience, and of the Second Book of the Transcendental Analytic, Introduction, Of the Transcendental Judgment in General. The translations are based upon the 1t German edition.

* 1008. [Kant's Treatment of Substance]
A. MS., n.p., May 21, 1911, pp. 11-14.

* 1009. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 39 pp., excluding various calculations on verso of some pages.
Topics include: continuity and relativity; Anselm's proof of God's existence; feeling and consciousness; laws of nature, their growth and necessity; laws and signs; signs, symbols, propositions, and truth; relation of metaphysics to logic; cognition and inference; fallibilism and the limits of rationality; continuity and the problem of the action of matter upon mind; Kant and the confusion of logical questions with psychological ones; infinity; the final (ideal) opinion; comments on An Essay concerning human understanding.

Physics


AERODYNAMICS

1010. A Problem in Aerodynamics
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp., with 3 pp. of variants.
Airships and wind velocity.

1011. Introduction
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 14 pp.
Probably an introduction to an article on air-sailing. Problem of mechanical flight, including an historical account of researches on the problem, beginning with the work of K. H. Schellbach.

1012. Report of the First Experimental Run of the Air-Ship of Count von Zeppelin (Z)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-14, with 5 pp. of variants.
An account of the preparations made in 1899 and 1900 on Lake Constance for the first airship ascension. It is quite likely that the above is a translation made for Langley of the Smithsonian.

1013. The Prospects of Air-Sailing
A. MS., n.p., [1895], pp. 1-51, with an alternate p. 28.
Hydrodynamics involved in a fish's swimming upstream. Flight of birds. Professor Langley's theory of the aerodynamics of soaring. In general, CSP treats the kinds of problems and preparation required before an airship can be successfully launched. He thought that wind should be used as motive power. Prediction of success, with commercial value foreseen.

1014. The Prospects of Sailing the Air
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-15, 17-21, 32-34, 53-57; plus fragments.

1015. [Mathematics of Aerodynamics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
The need for research in the mathematics of aerodynamics. Reference to Professor Langley's researches.

COLOR EXPERIMENTS

1016. Color Studies. Vol. 2. Qualitative Phenomena, Methods and Theories
A. MS., small red notebook ("Color Miscellaneous" written on the cover), n.p., n.d., with exception of entries on p. 27 (6/9/866/28/87).
Fechner's Law applied to color, Spectra. Theory of Luminosity. Tables reporting the results of several experiments.

1017. [Hue Studies]
A. MS., small red notebook ("Hue" written on the cover), n.p., April 4, 1889, with many pages missing.

1018. [Color Experiments]
A. MS., small brown notebook, n.p., the notebook bought in K^ln, March 6, 1876, with numerous dates throughout, the last of which (p. 71) is February 15, 1877-
Extensive notes on color experiments; brief notes on logic, specifically premises and leading principles.

1019. [Color Experiment]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp. of tables.

1020. Calc. of Wave Lengths of Maxwell's Primary Colours
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3.

1021. Scale of Maxwell's Second Colour-Box compared with Angstr^m's wave lengths
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

1022. Memorandum of Studies to be made on Color
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.

1023. [Color Study]
Small envelope containing scraps of colored ribbon numbered in order of apparent brightness as determined by CSP on a dark day.

1024. [Fragments related to Color Experiments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.

MISCELLANEOUS

1025. [Notes on Rates of Change of Radio-active Elements]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 11 pp.

1026. The Principles of Mechanics
A. MS., n.p., [c.1878], 1 p., 3 pp., 3 pp., 4 pp., representing at least four tentative starts.
The three independent properties of time. Isochronous oscillations. Principle of living forces.

1027. Constants. A. Pure Physical Constants
A. MS., n.p., [c.1880], 1 p.

1028. Methods of Investigating the Constant of Space
A. MS., n.p., March 24, 1891, 2 drafts, 3 pp. each.

1029. [Fragments on Michelson-Morley Experiment on the Drift of Earth through the Ether]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

Chemistry


1030. Acetylene Gas (Acetylene)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-16.
The role of acetylene as an illuminating gas. Its commercial value and its greatest disadvantages. Way of avoiding explosions. The history of the discovery of the gas. Refutation of the claims of Berthelot, especially his theory of thermo-chemistry. Acetylene's importance in breaking down the barrier between the organic and the inorganic.

1031. Acetylene
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-l9 (long sheets), with several pages of inserts and variants.
The content of this paper is similar to that of MS. 1030, but more detailed.

1032. Acetylene Gas (Acetylene)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6, with 2 loose first pages and a p. 47.
Early draft of MS., 1030.

1033. Digest of the Chemistry of Acetylene (Acetylene)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7, 1-4 (continuous), 5-20, 28-43; 5-7; plus 6 pp. of variants and 1 p. of logic notes.
The history, properties, and formation of acetylene.

1034. [Notes on Acetylene]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 35-158 (p. 114 missing); plus one unnumbered sheet of calculations and one sheet dated "Astor Library 1898 Apr. 26."

1035. [Pending Claim]
TS., April 27, 1896, 1 p.
Application of CSP for a generator for acetylene and other gases. Serial No. 589239.

1036. Argon, Helium, and Helium's Partner
A. MS., n.p., [c.1890?], pp. 1-5.
On the discovery of new elements, spectrum analysis, and Mendelyeev's Periodic Law. Description of the total eclipse of 1869 in Kentucky, where CSP was sent as part of the Coast Survey Expedition. As an assistant to Professor Winlock of the Harvard College Observatory, CSP claims that he was the first to see argon.

1037. Argon, Helium, and the Partner of Helium. Continued
A. MS., n.p., [c.1890?], pp. 1-8. On argon.

1038. Chemistry
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
Definitions of "substance," "elementary substance," and "chemical compound." Valency and chemical graphs. Mendelyeev and the array of chemical elements.

1039. Chemistry The Elements
A. MS., n.p., n.d. (but a reference to Clarke 1897 on p. 1), 55 pp., including a sequence pp. 1-6 (chemistry); plus fragments and mathematical jottings.
Mendelyeev's array of the elements.

1040. Notes on table of atomic weights (Notes on At. Wts.)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6; plus 3 pp. of variants and 24 sheets of calculations.
Dates appear on four of the loose sheets, one of which is headed "Table of Atomic Weights compiled from very insufficient data in 1905." Another sheet reads: "Atomic Weights compiled without recent data 1908." CSP regards the table of atomic weights as one of the two most extraordinary achievements of inductive logic (Kepler's achievement is the other).

1041. Valency (Ve)
A. MS., n.p., [1905], pp. 1-26, with 6 pp. of variants.
CSP sets out to discuss "the mode of composition of ideas," developing an analogy between simple ideas and chemical elements.

1042. Valency (V) (V . . .)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8, 1-12, 5-14; plus 10 pp. of variants.
Earlier draft of MS. 1041.

1043. Note . . . to be printed in small type at the end of the article
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5.
The article referred to here is the article on valency (MSS. 1041 and 1042, if completed). CSP favors the strict law of valency, but admits that there are some problems in connection with its application.

1044. A Proposal of a change in the Atomic Weights with a remark on the Periodicity of the Properties of the Elements
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
CSP proposes that the present atomic weights be multiplied by 4, and that every element whose place is set in Mendelyeev's scheme receive an ordinary number. This two-part proposal, CSP suggests, has pedagogical and mnemonic advantages.

1045. The Seventy Decanes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 folded sheets (9 pp.).

1046. Chemical Curves
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.
Curves of the expansion of water, of the density of mixtures of sulphuric acid and water, etc.

1047. Views of Chemistry: sketched for Young Ladies
A. MS., seven small notebooks, n.p., [c.1861].
The topics covered in the seven notebooks are as follows: kinds of matter, chemical method, qualitative analysis, salts, equivalence of force, states of aggregation, tables illustrating the equations of chemical force.

1048. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 83 pp.; plus a small notebook filled with calculations pertaining to chemistry.
Among the fragments are curves of the density of the mixture of alcohol and water and of the mixture of sulphuric acid and water. Also, calculation of the axis of the upper part of the curve of residuals of atomic weights and various syntheses.

Astronomy


1049. Homogeneous Light
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Outline of a series of twenty experiments.

1050. [On Astronomical Magnitude]
A. MS., n.p., [1878], 28 pp.
Draft of abstract G-1878-6.

1051. [Notes on the Zodiac of Denderah]
A. MS., from a notebook, n.p., n.d., 23 pp.

1052. Zodiac (later list of Epping and Strassmaier)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

1053. Outline of the Idea of an Almanac
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.; plus 2 pp. on same topic.

1054. (Gothic Period)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-10.
Comparison of star catalogues from Ptolemy on down.

1055. Record of C. S. Peirce’s Photometric Observations
A. MS., notebook, n.p., May 4-June 10, 1872.

1056. Phyllotactic Numbers
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 25 pp.

1057. Tables to find the place of Juppiter at any given date
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

1058. Tracings showing our Groups of Stars 40 °-50° N as they appear in Argelander
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.

1059. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., over 800 pp.
Records of observation and calculations used in CSP's photometric researches and in other volumes in The Annals of the Harvard College Observatory.

Geodesy & Metrology


1060. De l'influence de le flexibilite du trepied sur l'oscillation du pendule a reversion
Report, 1877, pp. 1-23.
Lithographically produced manuscript distributed to the delegates of the International Geodetic Conference held at Stuttgart in 1877. The printed report (G-1877-3) derives from this manuscript.

1061. Sur la Flexion des pieds des pendules
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 43 pp.
Draft of MS. 1060.

1062. Plan of a New Reversible Pendulum
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.

1063. [Notes for Pendulum Research]
A. MS., two notebooks, n.p., n.d.

1064. Additional Note on the Method of Coincidences
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp., incomplete.
Additions to a report on pendulum swinging.

1065. [Records of Comparisons of Meters]
A. MS., n.p., December 25, 1878-July 19, 1879, 152 pp., of which only a small percentage is in CSP's hand.

1066. Table of Excesses
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp., but not in CSP's hand.

1067. Table of Residuals
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p., not in CSP's hand.

1068. Sheet Readings, Smithsonian
A. MS., notebook, n.p., December 1884-February 1885.
The title page is in CSP's hand but not much, if any, of the rest is. Data for pendulum experiments.

1069.

1070. [Coastal Survey Maps, Inventory of Instruments and Charts]
Booklet, n.p., n.d.
Page 22 of the booklet contains diagrams in CSP's hand.

1071. [Mathematical Notes on the Shape of the Earth]
A. MS., n.p., January 7-March 1914, 42 pp.

* 1072. Comparison of the Metre with a Wave-Length of Light
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-25, 24-26, 41-83.

1073. Determination of the relative length of a wave of light and a metre bar
A. MS., n.p., [c.1879], pp. 1-7; plus single page (A1), an insert to p. 7, a variant p. 6, and a single unnumbered page.

1074. [Notes for "Determination of the relative length of a wave of light and a metre bar"]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1879], 3 pp.; plus folded sheet.

1075. Preliminary Account of the Comparison of a Wave Length with the Metre by L. M. Rutherford and C. S. Peirce
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

1076. Pendulum Observations
TS., n.p., [1883], 16 pp., and A. MS., n.p., December 1-10, 1884 ("Pendulum Peirce No. 1"), 1 p.
Report on an expedition to Lady Franklin Bay. Draft of G-1883-1.

1077. [Weights and Measures of Various Countries]
TS. (with notes in CSP's hand), n.p., n.d., pp. 1-40.

1078. [Notes on Weights and Measures of Various Countries]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

1079. [Notes on Weights and Measures]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp. (not in CSP's hand); plus a printed report from the House of Representatives on the metric system and 1 p. (in CSP's hand).

1080. Calculation of earth's mean radius vector
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
This calculation was made for the Century Dictionary (see G-1889-3).

1081. Pendulum Experiments at Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J.
A. MS., notebook, n.p., August 1882.
The manuscript is in E. D. Preston's hand, but CSP is listed as Chief of Party. Comparison of time pieces.

1082. Pendulum Experiments at the Observatory of McGill College, Montreal
A. MS., notebook, n.p., September 1882.
The manuscript is partly in CSP's hand and partly in Preston's. Invariable reversible pendulums.

1083. Simple Pendulum hung by an elastic string
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3; plus 1 p.

1084. [Record of Pendulum Experiments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-13.

1085. [Metrological Notes]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 14 pp., not all in CSP's hand, and a notebook on the history of metrology.

1086. Note de M. Chacornac and Note de M. Charcornac sur la comete de Donate
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7.

1087. On the Absolute Value of Gravity
Amanuensis (Zina Fay Peirce), n.p., n.d., 6 pp.

1088. On Gravity as an Index of the Movements of the Earth's Crust
A. MS., n.p., n.d., p. 1.

1089. [On Metrology]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. and 7 pp., one of which contains dates (July 21-November 1, 1882).
Measurements: Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek. Metre scales compared. Determination of the length of decimetre scales.

1090. John P. Hayford's Contributions to the Science of Geodesy]
A. MS., n.p., March 20, 1914, p. 1.

1091.

1092. Six Reasons for the Prosecution of Pendulum Experiments
Printed article (annotated), G-1883-6b.

1093. Note on the Theory of the Economy of Research
A. MS., n.p., before June 4, 1877, pp. 1-10.
Draft of G-1879-5c.

1094. [Coast Survey Calculations]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 61 pp.

* 1095. [Fragments on Pendulum Experiments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 509 pp.
A good part of what has been collected here appears to be material for a report or reports to the Coast and Geodetic Survey. Included are notes to superiors and subordinates in the Survey; a description of the Gravitation and Astronomical Station, Ebensburg, Cambria Co., Pennsylvania; pendulum readings at the Smithsorlian and in Ann Arbor, Ithaca, and Madison; calculation for Gautier pendulums; the comparison of a metal decimetre with a glass decimetre; notes on a clock signal and self-switch; list of books and apparatus charged to CSP; corrections to Appendices 15 and 16 of the Report of 1884. Approximately one-hundred-fifty leaves with red and blue numbers serawled on one side have been separated from the rest. These constitute a miscellaneous collection of worksheets, numbered by CSP in red from 1 to 2038 and in blue from 2038 to 1 (i.e., red number 1 is blue number 2038). Included here are records of pendulum observations for the Coast and Geodetic Survey, calculations, exploration of mathematical problems.

1096.[Fragments of Coast Survey Report of 1889]
TS., n.p., [1889], 18 pp., with CSP's corrections, and 2 photographs.
Among the fragments is a typescript of a report (?); various tables (calculation of atmospheric effects, coefficients of expansion of the pendulum, constants for calculating flexure effects, flexure per kilogram); descriptions and positions of the Smithsonian, Cornell, Ann Arbor, and Madison astronomical stations; deduction of the ratio of gravity between the different stations; general description of the pendulums and other equipment.

1097. [Charts] A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 charts.

1098. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 18 pp.; plus pp. 1-7 of a typewritten report on tide elevations and 4 pp. of TS. (bibliographical notes).

Psychology


1099. Questions on William James's Principles of Psychology 1
A. MS., notebook, G-c. 1891-l .
Forty-five questions relating to Volume I of James's Principles of Psychology. Questions 3, 5, 12, 14, 21-23, 29-33, 36, 41-42 were published: 8.72-90.

1100. On Small Differences of Sensation (with J. Jastrow)
TS., G-1884-10, pp. 1-15, incomplete, with l p. (unnumbered) and 2 duplicates; plus a reprint (National Academy of Science, Vol. III, 1884, pp. 3-11), corrected by CSP.
Published as 7.21-35, with corrections from the reprint.

1101. Our Senses as Reasoning Machines
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, incomplete, with 7 pp. of fragments and some logical and mathematical notes on versos of some of these pages.
Instinct and reasoning. Can machines be said to reason? CSP replies that they can't; they proceed only by a rule of thumb. Quasi-inferential processes of sense.

1102. [On Sensation]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3; plus 1 p.
Each of our sensations has a quality of its own.

1103. Immediate Perception
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 6 pp.
Sir W. Hamilton's definition of "common sense" stated, with CSP's criticism added. Application to the theory of perception.

* 1104. On a New Class of Observations, suggested by the principles of Logic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Two metaphysical theories concerning sensation. CSP accepts the position that, although the differences between sensations can never be covered by a general description, indefinite progress toward such a description may be made.

1105. C. S. Peirce’s Analysis of Creation and Analysis of Creation
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp. of several starts.
How can a modification of consciousness be produced? How can abstraction become a modification of consciousness? Abstraction combined with the manifold of sensation by means of expression. Expression as the first condition of creation. The necessity of expression. The regulation of language; the means by which meaning enters into language. Examples of the necessity of regulation.

1106. [Consciousness]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-12.
An attempt to define "consciousness." CSP recognizes three meanings of the word (excluding the nonphilosophical usage which occurs when a person who comes out of a faint is said to have recovered consciousness). The three meanings reflect the three categories: feeling (Firstness), effort (Secondness), and thought (Thirdness). In regard to the second mode of consciousness, CSP distinguishes the active species from the passive (or degenerate) species.

1107. [Forms of Consciousness]
A. MS., G-undated-9, pp. 1-16.
Published in entirety as 7.539-552.

1108. [Will-Reaction; Mind (Self, Ego)]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p. and 1 p.

1109. [Feeling, Reaction, Thought; Continuity]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Thought can be reduced neither to qualities of feeling nor reactions. It is characterized by generality and continuity. Generality of meaning as a special aspect of continuity.

1110. [The Threefold Division of Mind]
A. MS., Gundated-9, pp. 1-6, with a variant p. 5; plus 1 p.
Early draft of MS. 1107. Published, in part, as 7.540n8 and 7.541n9.

1111. [The Threefold Division of Mind]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-6.
Feeling, will, and knowledge. Each is analyzed in terms of the categories.

1112. [Fragment on Consciousness and Reasoning]
A. MS., G-undated-14, 3 pp.
Published in entirety as 7.553.

1113. [Fragment on Consciousness and Reasoning]
A. MS., G-undated-14, 4 pp.
Published, in part, as 7.554. Omitted: CSP's discussion of the aptness of a metaphor that he employed in the published part.

1114. [Fragment on Imagination, Sensation, and Muscular Reaction]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.; plus 1 p. of another draft.

1115. [Psychology and the Analysis of Feeling]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.; plus 1 p. on the spatial continuity of feelings.

1116. Analysis of the Ego
A. MS., n.p., early, 11 pp., incomplete.
How does anything existent exist? Or, what are the conditions of subjectivity? Subject is what it is by virtue of an incarnation of a predicate. It is by quality that substance in general exists. Incarnation as a combination of carnification and materiafication.

1117. On Brain-Forcing
TS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Introductory pages on the problem of how to develop a young brain, ripen the adult one, and preserve it in old age. CSP touches on the question of genius.

1118. [Fragments on the Question of Genius]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp. and 5 pp.

1119. [Worksheets for Studies in Great Men]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1883], a model form and 50 of these forms which have been partially filled in.
An experimental project for a class in logic, devised by CSP while at Johns Hopkins. The printed forms require a good deal of data of which only a small percentage has actually been recorded. Notes on the versos of some of the forms.

1120.Materials for an Impressionistic List of 300 Great Men
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.; plus over 250 pp. of fragments and scraps.
In addition to the list of three hundred men grouped under several headings (the first rank, provisionally admitted, doubtful, provisionally excluded), there are biographical notes, questionnaires, and other means and efforts to develop the "power of observation" through an impressionistic study of comparative biography.

1121. [Reasoning Power]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 5-20, incomplete.
The reasoning power of men in different ages. In addition, there are comments on the secundal system.

1122. [Announcement of a Lecture or Lectures on the Topic of Great Men]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

1123. The Pro